Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Adolescence is a period of human development associated with increased emotional intensity and heightened vulnerability to developing psychopathology. This study used Latent Class Analysis to identify subgroups of youth based on emotional clarity and cognitive response styles. Participants were 436 adolescents (51.8% female; 48.2% African-American/Black, 47.4% Caucasian/White) who completed measures of emotional clarity, cognitive response styles, and depression at baseline (M = 13.02 years, SD = .83), and at a 1-year and 4-year follow-up. Four classes were identified and used to predict depression outcomes. Overall, youth with above average emotional clarity who reported using a variety of adaptive cognitive response styles also had the lowest level of depressive symptoms at baseline. Class membership did not predict depressive symptoms at any follow-up. The results suggest that the unique profiles based on youth reported levels of emotional clarity and use of problem solving, distraction, and rumination, may not be more predictive of depression outcomes, beyond earlier assessments of depression or by examining these facets in isolation.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abela, J. R. Z., Aydin, C. M., & Auerbach, R. P. (2007). Responses to depression in children: Reconceptualizing the relation among response styles. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(6), 913–927. CrossRef
Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2011). Rumination as a vulnerability factor to depression during the transition from early to middle adolescence: A multiwave longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(2), 259–271. CrossRef
Abela, J. R. Z., Vanderbilt, E., & Rochon, A. (2004). A test of the integration of the response styles and social support theories of depression in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 653–674. CrossRef
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372. CrossRef
Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (2007). The adolescent surge in depression and emergence of gender differences: A biocognitive vulnerability-stress model in developmental context. In D. Romer & E. F. Walker (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain: Integrating brain and prevention science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Alloy, L. B., Black, S. K., Young, M. E., Goldstein, K. E., Shapero, B. G., Stange, J. P., et al. (2012). Cognitive vulnerabilities and depression versus other psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41, 539–560. CrossRef
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches using Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21(3), 329–341. CrossRef
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Brinthaupt, T. M., & Lipka, R. P. (2002). Understanding early adolescent self and identity: An introduction. In R. P. Lipka & T. M. Brinthaupt (Eds.), Understanding early adolescent self and identity: Applications and interventions (pp. 1–21). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Cañas, J. J., Quesada, J. F., Antolí, A., & Fajardo, I. (2003). Cognitive flexibility and adaptability to environmental changes in dynamic complex problem-solving tasks. Ergonomics, 46(5), 482–501. CrossRef
Chang, E. C., D’Zurilla, T. J., & Sanna, L. J. (Eds.). (2004). Social problem solving: Theory, research, and training. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Cheng, C., Lau, H., & Chan, M. (2014). Coping flexibility and psychological adjustment to stressful life changes: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1582–1607. CrossRef
Davis, R. N., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 699–711. CrossRef
Denham, S. A. (2007). Dealing with feelings: How children negotiate the worlds of emotions and social relationships. Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 11(1), 1.
Eastabrook, J. M., Flynn, J. J., & Hollenstein, T. (2014). Internalizing symptoms in female adolescents: Associations with emotional awareness and emotion regulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(3), 487–496. CrossRef
Extremera, N., Durán, A., & Rey, L. (2007). Perceived emotional intelligence and dispositional optimism–pessimism: Analyzing their role in predicting psychological adjustment among adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 1069–1079. CrossRef
Flynn, M., & Rudolph, K. D. (2010). The contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to stress responses and depression. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(4), 291–297. CrossRef
Fossati, A., Feeney, J., Maffei, C., & Borroni, S. (2014). Thinking about feelings: Affective state mentalization, attachment styles, and borderline personality disorder features among Italian nonclinical adolescents. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 31(1), 41–67. CrossRef
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 359, 1367–1377. CrossRef
Fresco, D. M., Williams, N. L., & Nugent, N. R. (2006). Flexibility and negative affect: Examining the associations of explanatory flexibility and coping flexibility to each other and to depression and anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 201–210. CrossRef
Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychopathology, 30, 467–483.
Gohm, C. L., & Clore, G. L. (2000). Individual differences in emotional experience: Mapping available scales to processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(6), 679–697. CrossRef
Goodman, S. H., Gravitt, G. W., & Kaslow, N. J. (1995). Social problem solving: A moderator of the relation between life stress and depression symptoms in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 473–485. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford Press.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 128. CrossRef
Hankin, B. L., Mermelstein, R., & Roesch, L. (2007). Sex differences in adolescent depression: Stress exposure and reactivity models. Child Development, 78, 279–295. CrossRef
Hyde, J. S., Mezulis, A. H., & Abramson, L. Y. (2008). The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological Review, 115(2), 291. CrossRef
Kashdan, T. B., & Rottenberg, J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clinical Psychological Review, 30, 865–878. CrossRef
Klein, D. N., Dougherty, L. R., & Olino, T. M. (2005). Toward guidelines for evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 412–432. CrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1985). The children’s depression inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21(4), 995–998. PubMed
Kovacs, M. (1992). The children’s depression inventory: Manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Masyn, K. E., Henderson, C. E., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2010). Exploring the latent structures of psychological constructs in social development using the dimensional/categorical spectrum. Social Development, 19, 470–493. CrossRef
McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(3), 186–193. CrossRef
Muris, P., Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., & Boomsma, P. (2004). Rumination and worry in nonclinical adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 539–554. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of the depressive episode. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. CrossRef
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological bulletin, 115(3), 424. CrossRef
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1993). Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 561–570. CrossRef
Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Model: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14, 535–569. CrossRef
Oliva, A., Parra, Á, & Reina, M. C. (2014). Personal and contextual factors related to internalizing problems during adolescence. Child & Youth Care Forum, 43(4), 505–520. CrossRef
Powell, S., Coll, K. M., Trotter, A., Thobro, P., & Haas, R. (2011). Psychosocial correlates of alexithymia in a rural adolescent residential population. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 28(4), 327–344. CrossRef
Rubenstein, L. M., Hamilton, J. L., Stange, J. P., Flynn, M., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2015). The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 68–76. CrossRef
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211. CrossRef
Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the trait meta-mood scale. In J. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Schwartz, J. A. J., & Koenig, L. J. (1996). Response styles and negative affect among adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 13–36. CrossRef
Stange, J. P., Alloy, L. B., & Fresco, D. M. (2017). Inflexibility as a vulnerability to depression: A systematic qualitative review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 24, 245–276.
Stange, J. P., Connolly, S. L., Burke, T. A., Hamilton, J. L., Hamlat, E. J., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2016). Inflexible cognition predicts first onset of major depressive episodes in adolescence. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 1005–1012. CrossRef
Steinberg, L. (2017). Adolescence (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Troy, A. S., & Mauss, I. B. (2011). Resilience in the face of stress: Emotion regulation as a protective factor. In S. M. Southwick et al. (Eds.), Resilience and mental health (pp. 30–44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort difference on the children’s depression inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(4), 578–588. CrossRef
- Understanding the Constellation of Adolescent Emotional Clarity and Cognitive Response Styles when Predicting Depression: A Latent Class Analysis
Brae Anne McArthur
Liza M. Haas
Taylor A. Burke
Lisa E. Johnson
Thomas M. Olino
Lyn Y. Abramson
Lauren B. Alloy
- Springer US