In this paper, I examine the potential of mindfulness in relation to facing anger and aggression from the viewpoint of early Buddhism. After a brief survey of relevant current research, I investigate the indication in one Pāli discourse that mindfulness on its own is not sufficient for emerging from enmity. A consultation of the Chinese parallels to this discourse suggests this presentation to be the result of a textual error. The instructions on the four establishments of mindfulness confirm that, from an early Buddhist viewpoint, mindfulness was considered an effective means to counter anger. Closer study of these instructions shows a considerable degree of overlap with current research findings and suggests a possible direction for future research.