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01-08-2018 | Uitgave 11/2018 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 11/2018

The Portuguese Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score and its measurement equivalence in three countries: validation study using Rasch Models

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 11/2018
Ricardo J. O. Ferreira, Laure Gossec, Cátia Duarte, Joanne K. Nicklin, Sarah Hewlett, J. A. P. da Silva, Mwidimi Ndosi
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-018-1959-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



The Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score assesses seven impact domains of interest for people with RA. This study aimed to test patients’ understanding of the Portuguese RAID and evaluate its cross-cultural validity for use in Portugal.


This was a mixed methods study comprising two phases: (i) cognitive debriefing to determine patient’s comprehension of the Portuguese RAID and (ii) cross-cultural validation using Rasch analysis. Construct validity was determined by fit to the model, invariance culture (compared with France and UK datasets) and evidence of convergent and divergent validity.


Patients’ input (n = 38) led to minor changes in the phrasing of two items to ensure conceptual equivalence between the Portuguese and the original RAID. In Rasch analysis (n = 288), two items ‘Sleep’ and ‘Physical well-being’ in the Portuguese dataset did not adequately fit the model specifications, suggesting multidimensionality (sleep—not necessarily associated with RA) and redundancy (physical well-being overlapping with functional disability). Despite the imperfections, the scale had high internal consistency, evidence of convergent and divergent validity and invariance to culture (compared to France n = 195 and UK n = 205 datasets). The scale was well targeted for patients with different levels of disease impact.


The RAID has been successfully adapted into Portuguese and it can be used with confidence in clinical practice. Further research will be required to ensure it captures the full range of sleep problems in RA. Meanwhile, data across the three countries (Portugal, France and the UK) are comparable except for the two items (sleep and physical well-being).

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