Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
It is well-established that youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often peer-rejected and rated by parents, teachers, and observers to have poor social skills, when compared to typically developing peers. Significantly less research, however, has been devoted to the experiences youth with ADHD have in their close friendships. The aim of this article is to draw attention to friendship as a distinct construct from peer rejection and social skills and to summarize what is known about youth with ADHD in their friendships. The potential for stable, high-quality friendships to buffer the negative outcomes typically conferred by peer rejection in this population is discussed. This article concludes with recommendations for interventions that specifically target improving the close friendships of youth with ADHD as a treatment strategy.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abikoff, H. B. (1985). Efficacy of cognitive training intervention with hyperactive children: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 5, 479–512. CrossRef
Abikoff, H. B., & Gittelman, R. (1985). Hyperactive children treated with stimulants: Is cognitive training a useful adjunct? Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 953–961. PubMed
Abikoff, H. B., Hechtman, L., Klein, R. G., Gallagher, R., Fleiss, K., Etcovitch, J., et al. (2004). Social functioning in children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 820–829. PubMedCrossRef
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author (-text revision).
Antshel, K. M., & Remer, R. (2003). Social skills training in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A randomized-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 153–165. PubMed
Asher, S. R., Parker, J. G., & Walker, D. L. (1996). Distinguishing friendship from acceptance: Implications for intervention and assessment. In W. M. Bukowski & A. F. Newcomb (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 366–405). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Attili, G., Vermigli, P., & Roazzi, A. (2010). Children’s social competence, peer status, and the quality of mother-child and father-child relationships: A multidimensional scaling approach. European Psychologist, 15, 23–33. CrossRef
Bagwell, C., Newcomb, A. F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1998). Preadolescent friendship and peer rejection as predictors of adult adjustment. Child Development, 69, 140–153. PubMed
Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends’ influence on students’ adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15–28. CrossRef
Berndt, T. J., Hawkins, J. A., & Ziao, J. (1999). Influences of friends and friendships on adjustment to junior high school. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 13–41.
Berndt, T. J., & Hoyle, S. G. (1985). Stability and change in childhood and adolescent friendships. Developmental Psychology, 21, 1007–1015. CrossRef
Berndt, T. J., & Perry, T. B. (1986). Children’s perceptions of friendships as supportive relationships. Developmental Psychology, 22, 640–648. CrossRef
Branje, S. J. T., Frijns, T., Finkenauer, C., Engels, R., & Meeus, W. (2007). You are my best friend: Commitment and stability in adolescents’ same-sex friendships. Personal Relationships, 14, 587–603. CrossRef
Buhrmester, D. (1996). Need fulfillment, interpersonal competence, and the developmental contexts of early adolescent friendship. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendships in childhood and adolescence (pp. 346–365). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Buhs, E. S., Ladd, G. W., & Herald, S. L. (2006). Peer exclusion and victimization: Processes that mediate the relation between peer group rejection and children’s classroom engagement and achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 1–13. CrossRef
Bukowski, W. M., Newcomb, A. F., & Hoza, B. (1987). Friendship conceptions among early adolescents: A longitudinal study of stability and change. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7, 143–152. CrossRef
Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Gest, S. D., & Gariepy, J. (1988). Social networks and aggressive behavior: Peer support or peer rejection? Developmental Psychology, 24, 815–823. CrossRef
Chronis-Tuscano, A., & Clarke, T. L. (2008). Behavioral skills training for depressed mothers of children with ADHD. In L. L’Abate (Ed.), Toward a science of clinical psychology: Laboratory evaluations and interventions (pp. 57–77). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570. CrossRef
Cook, T. D., Deng, Y., & Morgano, E. (2007). Friendship influences during early adolescence: The special role of friends’ grade point average. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 325–356. CrossRef
Degirmencioglu, S. M., Urberg, K. A., Tolson, J. M., & Richard, P. (1998). Adolescent friendship networks: Continuity and change over the school year. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 44, 313–337.
Eme, R. F. (1992). Selective female affliction in the developmental disorders of childhood: A review. Journal of Child Clinical Psychology, 21, 354–364. CrossRef
Evans, S. W., Dowling, C., & Brown, R. (2008). Psychosocial treatment of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In K. McBurnett & L. J. Pfiffner (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Finnie, V., & Russell, A. (1988). Preschool children’s social status and their mothers’ behavior and knowledge in the supervisory role. Developmental Psychology, 24, 789–801. CrossRef
Frankel, F. (1996). Good friends are hard to find: Help your child find, make, and keep friends. Los Angeles: Perspective Publishing.
Frankel, F. (2003). Measuring the Quality of Play Dates. Unpublished manuscript.
Frankel, F., & Myatt, R. (2003). Children’s friendship training. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Frankel, F., Myatt, R., Cantwell, D. P., & Feinberg, D. (1997). Parent-assisted transfer of children’s social skills training: Effects on children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1056–1064. PubMedCrossRef
Furman, W. (1996). The measurement of friendship perceptions: Conceptual and methodological issues. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Furman, W., & Bierman, K. L. (1983). Developmental changes in young children’s concepts of friendship. Child Development, 54, 549–556. CrossRef
Gifford-Smith, M. E., & Brownell, C. A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships: Social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 235–284. CrossRef
Gottman, J. M. (1983). How children become friends. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 48(3, Serial No. 201).
Greene, R. W., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Sienna, M., & Garcia-Jetton, J. (1997). Adolescent outcome of boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and social disability: Results from a 4-year longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 758–767. PubMedCrossRef
Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, MN: Assistance Service.
Hartup, W. W. (1995). The three faces of friendship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 569–574. CrossRef
Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaption in the life course. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 355–370. CrossRef
Hechtman, L. (1996). Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 350–360.
Heiman, T. (2005). An examination of peer relationships of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology International, 26, 330–339. CrossRef
Hodgens, J. B., Cole, J., & Boldizar, J. (2000). Peer-based differences among boys with ADHD. Journal of Child Clinical Psychology, 29, 443–452. CrossRef
Howes, C. (1996). The earliest friendships. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 66–86). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Huang-Pollock, C. L., Mikami, A. Y., Pfiffner, L. J., & McBurnett, K. (2007). ADHD subtype differences in motivational responsivity but not inhibitory control: Evidence from a reward-based variation of the stop signal paradigm. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 127–136. PubMed
Hymel, S., Wagner, E., & Butler, L. J. (1990). Reputational bias: View from the peer group. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 156–186). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Klein, R. G., & Abikoff, H. (1997). Behavior therapy and methylphenidate in the treatment of children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2, 89–114. CrossRef
Ladd, G. W., & Emerson, E. S. (1984). Shared knowledge in children’s friendships. Developmental Psychology, 20, 932–940. CrossRef
Ladd, G. W., & Hart, C. H. (1992). Creating informal play opportunities: Are parents’ and preschoolers’ initiations related to children’s competence with peers? Developmental Psychology, 28, 1179–1187. CrossRef
Landau, S. L., Milich, R., & Diener, M. B. (1998). Peer relations of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 14, 83–105. CrossRef
Landau, S. L., & Moore, L. A. (1991). Social skills deficits in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 20, 235–251.
Larsen, H., Branje, S. J. T., van der Valk, I., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2007). Friendship quality as a moderator between perception of interparental conflicts and maladjustment in adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 549–558. CrossRef
Maccoby, E. E. (1998). The two sexes: Growing up apart, coming together. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (1999). Adolescent and adult outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 279–294). New York: Kluwer Academic.
Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (2000). Long term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 711–726. PubMed
McGuire, K. D., & Weisz, J. R. (1982). Social cognition and behavioral correlates of preadolescent chumship. Child Development, 53, 1478–1484. CrossRef
Mikami, A. Y., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2006). Resilient adolescent adjustment among girls: Buffers of childhood peer rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 823–837. CrossRef
Mikami, A. Y., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2008). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in girls. In K. McBurnett & L. J. Pfiffner (Eds.), Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: concepts, controversies, new directions (pp. 259–272). New York: Informa Healthcare.
Mikami, A. Y., Jack, A., Emeh, C. C., & Stephens, H. F. (in press-a). Parental influences on children with ADHD: I. Parental behaviors associated with children’s peer relationships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
Mikami, A. Y., Lerner, M. D., Griggs, M. S., McGrath, A., & Calhoun, C. D. (in press-b). Parental influences on children with ADHD: II. A pilot intervention training parents as friendship coaches for their children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
Mikami, A. Y., Lerner, M. D., & Lun, J. (2010). Social context influences on children’s rejection by their peers. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 123–130.
Mikami, A. Y., & Pfiffner, L. J. (2006). Social skills training for youth with disruptive behavior disorders: A review of best practices. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 6, 3–23.
Mikami, A. Y., & Pfiffner, L. J. (2007). Sibling relationships among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11, 1–11.
Milich, R., Balentine, A., & Lynam, D. (2001). ADHD combined type and ADHD predominantly inattentive type are distinct and unrelated disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 463–488. CrossRef
Mrug, S., Hoza, B., & Gerdes, A. C. (2001). Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer relationships and peer-oriented interventions. In D. W. Nangle & C. A. Erdley (Eds.), The role of friendship in psychological adjustment. New directions for child and adolescent development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 1073–1086. CrossRef
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2009). Family-peer linkages: The mediational role of attentional processes. Social Development, 18, 875–895. CrossRef
Normand, S., Schneider, B. H., & Robaey, P. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the challenges of close friendship. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 67–73. PubMed
Parke, R. D., Burks, V. M., Carson, J. L., Neville, B., & Boyum, L. A. (1994). Family-peer relationships: A tripartite model. In R. D. Parke & S. G. Kellam (Eds.), Exploring family relationships with other social contexts (pp. 115–146). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621. CrossRef
Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Price, J. M., & DeRosier, M. E. (1995). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, Vol. 2: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 96–161). New York: Wiley.
Pelham, W. E., & Bender, M. E. (1982). Peer relationships in hyperactive children: Description and treatment. In K. D. Gadow & I. Bailer (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 1, pp. 365–436). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Pelham, W. E., & Hoza, B. (1996). Intensive treatment: A summer treatment program for children with ADHD. In E. Hibbs & P. S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (pp. 311–340). New York: APA Press. CrossRef
Pelham, W. E., Wheeler, T., & Chronis, A. M. (1998). Empirically supported psychosocial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Clinical Psychology, 27, 190–205. CrossRef
Pfiffner, L. J., Calzada, E., & McBurnett, K. (2000). Interventions to enhance social competence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 689–709. PubMed
Pfiffner, L. J., Mikami, A. Y., Huang-Pollock, C. L., Easterlin, B., Zalecki, C. A., & McBurnett, K. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of integrated home-school behavioral treatment for ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1041–1050. PubMedCrossRef
Reitman, D., O’Callaghan, P. M., & Mitchell, P. (2005). Parent as coach: Enhancing sports participation and social behavior for ADHD-diagnosed children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 27, 57–68. CrossRef
Rose, A. J., Swenson, L. P., & Robert, C. (2009). Boys’ and girls’ motivations for refraining from prompting friends to talk about problems. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33, 178–184. CrossRef
Russell, A., & Finnie, V. (1990). Preschool children’s social status and maternal instructions to assist group entry. Developmental Psychology, 26, 603–611. CrossRef
Schneider, B. H., Weiner, J., & Murphy, K. (1994). Children’s friendships: The giant step beyond peer acceptance. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 323–340. CrossRef
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.
Tomada, G., Schneider, B. H., de Domini, P., Greenman, P. S., & Fonzi, A. (2005). Friendship as a predictor of adjustment following a transition to formal academic instruction and evaluation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 314–332.
Vernberg, E. M., Beery, S. H., Ewell, K. K., & Abwender, D. A. (1993). Parents’ use of friendship facilitation strategies and the formation of friendships in early adolescence: A prospective study. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 356–369. CrossRef
Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1992). The social profile of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Five fundamental facets. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1, 395–410.
- The Importance of Friendship for Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Amori Yee Mikami
- Springer US