Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s40037-017-0358-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Medical students study in social groups, which influence their learning, but few studies have investigated the characteristics of study groups and the impacts they have on students’ learning. A scoping review was conducted on the topic of informal social studying and learning within medical education with the aim of appraising what is known regarding medical student attitudes to group study, the impact of group study on participants, and the methods that have been employed to study this.
Using Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review principles, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched, along with hand-searching and a targeted search of the grey literature; 18 peer reviewed and 17 grey literature records were included.
Thematic conceptual analysis identified a number of themes, including: the nature of group study; the utility and value of group studying including social learning facilitating student engagement, social learning as a source of motivation and accountability, and social learning as a source of wellbeing; and student preferences related to group studying, including its homophilic nature, transgressiveness, and effectiveness. Despite these emerging factors, the evidence base for this phenomenon is small.
The findings in this scoping review demonstrate a clear role for social interaction outside of the classroom, and encourage us to consider the factors in student networking, and the implications of this on medical students’ academics. We also highlight areas in need of future research to allow us to better situate informal social learning within medical education and to enable educators to support this phenomenon.
Lovell B. “We are a tight community”: social groups and social identity in medical undergraduates. Med Educ. 2015;49:1016–27. CrossRef
Woolf K, Potts HWW, Patel S, McManus IC. The hidden medical school: a longitudinal study of how social networks form, and how they relate to academic performance. Med Teach. 2012;34:577–86. CrossRef
Hafferty FW, Castellani B, Hafferty PK, Pawlina W. Anatomy and histology as socially networked learning environments. Acad Med. 2013;88:1315–23. CrossRef
Abdulghani HM, Al-Drees AA, Khalil MS, Ahmad F, Ponnamperuma GG, Amin Z. What factors determine academic achievement in high achieving undergraduate medical students? A qualitative study. Med Teach. 2014;36(suppl1):S43–S8. CrossRef
Vaughan S, Sanders T, Crossley N, O’Neill P, Wass V. Bridging the gap: the roles of social capital and ethnicity in medical student achievement. Med Educ. 2014;49:114–23. CrossRef
Champaloux EP, Keeley MG. The impact of learning communities on interpersonal relationships among medical students. Med Educ Online. 2017;21:32958. CrossRef
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and Meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLOS Med. 2009;6:e1000097. CrossRef
Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Meth. 2005;8:19–32. CrossRef
Dent J, Harden RM. A practical guide for medical teachers, 4th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2013, p 1.
Dornan T, Mann KV, Scherpbier A, Spencer JA. Medical education: theory and practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2011.
Swanwick T. Understanding medical education. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013, p 1. CrossRef
Cleland J, Durning SJ. Researching medical education. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2015, p 1. CrossRef
Hannes K, Macaitis K. A move to more systematic and transparent approaches in qualitative evidence synthesis: update on a review of published papers. Qual Res. 2012;12:402–42. CrossRef
Effective Use of Study Groups [Internet]. School of Medicine University of Colorado Denver. Available from: http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/medicalschool/education/studentaffairs/studentresources/phases1to3/boardreview/Pages/Studygroups.aspx. Accessed 26 Sep 2016.
Petersen K. 8 tips for getting the most out of study groups. The Doctor’s Tablet 2012. http://blogs.einstein.yu.edu/8-tips-for-getting-the-most-out-of-study-groups/. Accessed 26. Sep 2016.
Kingsbury M. Study groups in medical school: help or hindrance?. Gap Medics 2014. http://www.gapmedics.com/blog/2014/02/15/study-groups-in-medical-school-help-or-hindrance/. Accessed 26 Sep 2016.
Taylor A. What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of a Study Group? | Synonym. Available from: http://classroom.synonym.com/advantages-disadvantages-study-group-4192.html. Accessed 28 Sept 2016.
Hendry GD, Hyde SJ, Davy P. Independent student study groups. Med Educ. 2005;39:672–9. CrossRef
Student-to-Student Study Tips: Medical School [Internet]. Student Affairs. Available from: http://studentaffairs.uic.edu/ace/study-strategies/student-to-student-study-tips-for-health-professionals/student-to-student-study-tips-medical-school/. Accessed 16 Sep 2016.
Effective Study at the Geisel School of Medicine [Internet]. Available from: https://geiselmed.dartmouth.edu/admin/learnserv/effective_study.shtml. Accessed 30 Sep 2016.
Study Tips [Internet]. General Practice Students Network. Available from: https://gpsn.org.au/resources/study-tips-for-medical-students/. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
Student Doctor Network. Study partners/group study in medical school 2007. http://forums.studentdoctor.net/threads/study-partners-group-study-in-medical-school.396684/. Accessed 14. Sep 2016.
Brandt ML. Starting medical school: strategies for studying 2011. https://wellnessrounds.org/2011/07/25/starting-medical-school-strategies-for-studying/. Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
Student Doctor Network. How to study efficiently in med school? 2006. http://forums.studentdoctor.net/threads/how-to-study-ef ficiently-in-med-school.312491/. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
Medoff L. Study Skills [Internet]. Stanford Medicine. Available from: http://med.stanford.edu/content/dam/sm/md/documents/Study-Skills.pdf. Accessed 29 Sep 2016.
Boysen PG, Daste L, Northern T. Multigenerational challenges and the future of graduate medical education. Ochsner J. 2016;16:101–7.
Dick J. Medical Students and peer support: a discussion based on findings from a BMSc research project. Scott Univ Med J. 2012;1(1):14–22.
Active Study Techniques [Internet]. University of Utah School of Medicine. Available from: http://medicine.utah.edu/learningresources/tools/active.php. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
Kingsbury M. How to study in medical school. Gap Medics 2014. http://www.gapmedics.com/blog/2014/02/22/how-to-study-in-medical-school/. Accessed 12 Mar 2017.
Study Skills [Internet]. University of Utah School of Medicine. Available from: http://medicine.utah.edu/learningresources/tools/study_skills.php. Accessed 30 Sep 2016.
Chou CL, Teherani A, Masters DE, Vener M, Wamsley M, Poncelet A. Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships. Med Educ Online. 2014;19:25809. CrossRef
Ali A. Medical students’ use of Facebook for educational purposes. Perspect Med Educ. 2016;5:163–9. CrossRef
DeVoe P, Niles C, Andrews N, Benjamin A, Blacklock L, Brainard A, et al. Lessons learned from a study-group pilot program for medical students perceived to be ‘at risk. Med Teach. 2007;29(2–3):e37–e40. CrossRef
McNeill KG, Kerr A, Mavor KI. Identity and norms: the role of group membership in medical student wellbeing. Perspect Med Educ. 2014;3:101–12. CrossRef
Woolf K, McManus IC, Potts HWW, Dacre J. The mediators of minority ethnic underperformance in final medical school examinations. Br J Educ Psychol. 2013;83(Pt 1):135–59. CrossRef
Scott JL, Moxham BJ, Rutherford SM. Building an open academic environment – a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through ‘Shadow Modules’. J Anat. 2014;224:286–95. CrossRef
9 essential tips for new medical students [Internet]. 2012. Available from: http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2012/07/9-essential-tips-medical-students.html. Accessed 27 Sep 2016.
Ding A. Studying in Medical School: Alex’s Tips and Techniques [Internet]. Medical School Success. Available from: http://www.medicalschoolsuccess.com/studying-in-medical-school/. Accessed 12 Mar 2016.
How do top medical students study? [Internet]. Quora. Available from: https://www.quora.com/How-do-top-medical-students-study. Accessed 29 Sep 2016.
Riddell N, King S. Near-peer teaching in medical education. Med Teach. 2016;38:317–8. CrossRef
Kulaç E. Learning styles, academic achievement, and gender in a medical school setting. J Clin Anal Med. 2015;6:608–11. CrossRef
Schauber SK, Hecht M, Nouns ZM, Kuhlmey A, Dettmer S. The role of environmental and individual characteristics in the development of student achievement: a comparison between a traditional and a problem-based-learning curriculum. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2015;20:1033–52. CrossRef
Amgad M, AlFaar AS. Integrating web 2.0 in clinical research education in a developing country. J Cancer Educ. 2014;20:536–40. CrossRef
Burford B. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory. Med Educ. 2012;46:143–52. CrossRef
- Social studying and learning among medical students: a scoping review
Rachel H. Ellaway
- Bohn Stafleu van Loghum