Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Study protocols were approved by Michigan State University’s Human Research Protection Program, and conformed to APA ethical standards. This research was supported by National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health Grant R01-MH63146 to Joel T. Nigg and Fernanda Ferreira.
Theoretical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit a prominent role for problems in response inhibition (Nigg 2006). A key avenue for impulsivity in children with ADHD is inappropriate language expression. In this study, we sought to determine whether poor inhibitory control affects language production in adolescents and adults with ADHD. One hundred and ninety-five participants (13–35 years old; 65% male) were presented with two pictures and a verb, and their task was to form a sentence. If deficits in response inhibition affect language production, then participants with ADHD should be more likely than non-ADHD controls to begin speaking before having formulated a plan that will allow a grammatical continuation. The results showed that the ADHD-combined subtype, in particular, was more likely to produce an ungrammatical sequence. Effects were not moderated by age or gender. These data suggest that response suppression deficits in ADHD adversely affect the basic processes of sentence formation.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. (1991). Manual for the young adult self-report and young adult behavior checklist. Burlington: University of Vermont.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. text rev.
Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (2006). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook-3rd Edition. New York: Guilford.
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 279–289. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.111.2.279. PubMedCrossRef
Berry, C. A., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (1985). Girls with attention deficit disorder: a silent minority? A report on behavior and cognitive characteristics. Pediatrics, 76, 801–809. PubMed
Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Keenan, K., Knee, D., & Tsuang, M. T. (1990). Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DSM–III attention deficit disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 526–533. PubMed
Blaskey, L. G. (2004). Inhibitory language deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder: a candidate shared deficit. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University.
Brown, T. E. (1996). Brown attention-deficit disorder scales. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Cohen, N. J., Davine, M., Horodezky, N., Lipsett, L., & Isaacson, L. (1992). Unsuspected language impairment in psychiatrically disturbed children: prevalence, language, and behavioral characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 595–603. CrossRef
Conners, C. K., Erhardt, D., & Sparrow, E. (1999). Adult ADHD Rating Scales: Technical manual. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Dick, F., & Elman, J. L. (2001). The frequency of major sentence types over discourse levels: a corpus analysis. Center for Research in Language Newsletter, 13, 3–18.
Ferreira, F., & Engelhardt, P. E. (2006). Syntax and Production. In M. Traxler & M. A. Gernsbacher (Eds.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 61–91). Oxford: Elsevier Inc. CrossRef
Friedman, N. P., Haberstick, B. C., Willcutt, E. G., Miyake, A., Young, S. E., Corley, R. P., et al. (2007). Greater attention problems during childhood predict poorer executive functioning in late adolescents. Psychological Science, 18, 893–900. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01997.x. PubMedCrossRef
Johnson, J. R., Miller, J. F., Curtiss, S., & Tallal, P. (1993). Conversations with children who are language impaired: asking questions. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 973–978.
Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., & Demler, O. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716–723. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp. 163.4.716. PubMedCrossRef
Lorch, E. P., Milich, R., Sanchez, R. P., van den Broek, P., Baer, S., Hooks, K., et al. (2000). Comprehension of televised stories in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and non-referred boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 321–330. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.109.2.321. PubMedCrossRef
Meyer, A. S., Wheeldon, L. R., & Krott, A. (2007). Automaticity and control in language processing. New York: Psychology Press.
Nigg, J. T. (2006). What causes ADHD? Understanding what goes wrong and why. New York: Guilford.
Puig-Antich, J., & Ryan, N. (1986). The schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children (Kiddie-SADS)—1986. Pittsburg: Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.
Scott, C. M., & Windsor, J. (2000). General language performance measures in spoken and written narrative and expository discourse of school-aged children with language learning disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR, 43, 324–339. PubMed
Tannock, R., & Schachar, R. (1996). Executive dysfunction as an underlying mechanism of behavior and language problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In J. Beitchman, N. Cohen, M. M. Konstantearas & R. Tannock (Eds.), Language, learning, and behavior disorders (pp. 128–155). Cambridge: University Press.
Wechsler, D. (1997a). Wecshler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1997b). Wecshler intelligence scale for children (4th ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2001). Wecshler Individual Achievement Test (2nd ed.) (WIAT – II). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Weiss, M., Hechtman, L. T., & Weiss, G. (1999). ADHD in adulthood: A guide to current theory, diagnosis, and treatment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Wender, P. H., Wolf, L. E., & Wasserstein, J. (2001). Adults with ADHD: An overview. In J. Wasserstein, L. E. Wolf & F. F. LeFever (Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Vol. 931. Adult attention deficit disorder: Brain mechanisms and life outcomes (pp. 1–16). New York: New York Ac. of Sciences.
Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). The wide range achievement test administration manual. Wilmington: Wide Range.
Willcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., Boada, R., Ogline, J. S., Tunick, R. A., Chabildas, N. A., et al. (2001). A comparison of the cognitive deficits in reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 110, 157–172.
- Priming Sentence Production in Adolescents and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyper-Activity Disorder
Paul E. Engelhardt
Joel T. Nigg
- Springer US