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25-11-2020 | Uitgave 3/2021 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 3/2021

Population norms of health-related quality of life in Moscow, Russia: the EQ-5D-5L-based survey

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 3/2021
Malwina Hołownia-Voloskova, Aleksei Tarbastaev, Dominik Golicki
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-020-02705-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.

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To develop population norms for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire based on a representative sample of Moscow citizens.


We used quota sampling accounting for sex, age group and administrative district of residence. Respondents in randomly selected outdoor and indoor locations were surveyed with the official Russian paper-and-pencil version of the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire and a set of socio-demographic questions. We estimated four types of EQ-5D results: the distribution of limitations according to EQ-5D-5L dimensions, the perception of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with a visual analogue scale (EQ VAS), the unweighted score for a respondent’s health state (Level Sum Score, LSS) and the Russian health preferences-based weighted score (EQ index). In order to estimate the EQ-5D-5L index, we used a newly developed Russian EQ-5D-3L value set, together with EuroQol Group cross-over methodology.


A total of 1020 respondents (18–93 years old) from the general Moscow adult population completed the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. HRQoL domains with the largest number of identified health limitations were pain/discomfort (48.6%) and anxiety/depression (44.1%). Two hundred seventy-nine respondents (27.0%) did not report any health restrictions. The mean EQ VAS and EQ-5D-5L index were 74.1 (SD 17.3) and 0.907 (0.106) respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex, advanced age and lack of access to the Internet had a negative influence on HRQoL, whereas residence in certain districts had a positive impact.


The study provides population norms of health-related quality of life in Moscow, measured according to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. These reference values can be used to optimise the effectiveness of resource allocation in healthcare.

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