Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N = 829, M = 10.9 years old ± 3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont.
Agresti, A. (2002). Categorical data analysis. New York: Wiley. CrossRef
Algorta, G. P., Youngstrom, E. A., Frazier, T. W., Freeman, A. J., Youngstrom, J. K., & Findling, R. L. (2011). Suicidality in pediatric bipolar disorder: predictor or outcome of family processes and mixed mood presentation? Bipolar Disorders, 13, 76–86. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00886.x. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Walshaw, P. D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R. K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescent brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Development & Psychopathology, 18, 1055–1103. doi: 10.1017/S0954579406060524. CrossRef
Axelson, D. A., Birmaher, B. J., Brent, D., Wassick, S., Hoover, C., Bridge, J., & Ryan, N. (2003). A preliminary study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children mania rating scale for children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 13, 463–470. CrossRefPubMed
Axelson, D. A., Birmaher, B., Strober, M. A., Goldstein, B. I., Ha, W., Gill, M. K., & Keller, M. B. (2011). Course of subthreshold bipolar disorder in youth: diagnostic progression from bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(1001–1016), e1003. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.07.005.
Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R. A., Mazure, C., & Charney, D. S. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse–a preliminary report. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 23–32. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Carlson, G. A., & Meyer, S. E. (2006). Phenomenology and diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: complexities and developmental issues. Development & Psychopathology, 18, 939–969. CrossRef
Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., & Van der Kolk, B. (2005). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 390–398.
Etain, B., Mathieu, F., Henry, C., Raust, A., Roy, I., Germain, A., Leboyer, M., & Belliver, F. (2010). Preferential association between childhood emotional abuse and bipolar disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 376–383. PubMed
Fergusson, D. M., & Lynskey, M. T. (1997). Physical punishment/maltreatment during childhood and adjustment in young adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 617–630. CrossRef
Findling, R. L., Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., McNamara, N. K., Stansbrey, R. J., Gracious, B. L., & Calabrese, J. R. (2007). Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of divalproex monotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic youth at high risk for developing bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 781–788. CrossRefPubMed
Findling, R. L., Jo, B., Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Demeter, C. A., Fristad, M. A., & Horwitz, S. M. (2013). The 24-month course of manic symptoms in children. Bipolar Disorders. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12100.
Geller, B., Zimerman, B., Williams, M., Bolhofner, K., Craney, J. L., DelBello, M. P., & Soutullo, C. (2001). Reliability of the Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (WASH-U-KSADS) mania and rapid cycling sections. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 450–455. CrossRef
Goldstein, B. I., & Levitt, A. J. (2006). Further evidence for a developmental subtype of bipolar disorder defined by age at onset: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1633–1636. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.9.1633. CrossRefPubMed
Goldstein, B. L., Shamseddeen, W., Axelson, D. A., Kalas, C., Monk, K., Brent, D. A., Kupfer, D. J., & Birmaher, B. (2010). Clinical, demographic, and familial correlates of bipolar spectrum disorders among school-aged offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 388–396.
Hall, M. B. (1952). Our present knowledge about manic-depressive states in childhood. The Nervous Child, 9, 319–325.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished working paper, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Issac, G. (1991). Bipolar disorder in prepubertal children in a special education setting: Is it rare? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 165–168.
Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child &Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199707000-00021. CrossRef
Levitan, R. D., Parikh, S. V., Lesage, A. D., Hegadoren, K. M., Adams, M., Kennedy, S. H., & Goering, P. N. (1998). Major depression in individuals with a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse: relationship to neurovegetative features, mania, and gender. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1746–1752. CrossRefPubMed
Loftus, E. F., Garry, M., & Feldman, J. (1994). Forgetting sexual trauma: what does it mean when 38% forget? Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 1177–1181. discussion 1182–1176. CrossRef
Maniglio, R. (2013c). Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10567-013-0161-z. Advance online publication.
McIntyre, R. S., Soczynska, J. K., Mancini, D., Lam, C., Woldeyohannes, H. O., Moon, S., & Kennedy, S. H. (2008). The relationship between childhood abuse and suicidality in adult bipolar disorder. Violence & Victims, 23, 361–372. CrossRef
Prisciandaro, J. J., & Roberts, J. E. (2011). Evidence for the continuous latent structure of mania in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area from multiple latent structure and construct validation methodologies. Psychological Medicine, 41, 575–588. doi: 10.1017/S0033291710001078. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Romero, S., Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Goldstein, T., Goldstein, B. I., Gill, M. K., & Keller, M. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of physical and sexual abuse in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 112, 144–150. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.04.005. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Russo, M., Proujansky, R., Gilbert, A., Braga, R. J., & Burdick, K. E. (2013). Initial evidence for sex-specific effects of early emotional abuse on affective processing in bipolar disorder. European Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2013.06.005.
SAMHSA. (2012). Mental Health, United States, 2010. Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Tillman, R., Geller, B., Klages, T., Corrigan, M., Bolhofner, K., & Zimerman, B. (2008). Psychotic phenomena in 257 young children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder: delusions and hallucinations (benign and pathological). Bipolar Disorders, 10, 45–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2008.00480.x. CrossRefPubMed
Van Meter, A. R., Youngstrom, E. A., Demeter, C., & Findling, R. L. (2012). Examining the validity of cyclothymic disorder in a youth sample: replication and extension. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9680-1.
Williams, L. M. (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: a prospective study of women’s memories of child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 1167–1176. CrossRef
Youngstrom, E. A. (2009). Definitional issues in bipolar disorder across the life cycle. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 16, 140–160.
Youngstrom, E. A., Meyers, O., Demeter, C., Youngstrom, J., Morello, L., Piiparinen, R., & Findling, R. L. (2005). Comparing diagnostic checklists for pediatric bipolar disorder in academic and community mental health settings. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 507–517. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2005.00269.x. CrossRefPubMed
- Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific
Tina Du Rocher Schudlich
Eric A. Youngstrom
Norah C. Feeny
Robert L. Findling
- Springer US