Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Researchers have reported that network characteristics are associated with substance use behavior. Considering that social interactions within online networks are increasingly common, we examined the relationship between online network characteristics and substance use in a sample of emerging adults (ages 18–24) from across the United States (N = 2,153; M = 21 years old; 47 % female; 70 % White). We used regression analyses to examine the relationship between online ego network characteristics (i.e., characteristics of individuals directly related to the focal participant plus the relationships shared among individuals within the online network) and alcohol use and substance use, respectively. Alcohol use was associated with network density (i.e., interconnectedness between individuals in a network), total number of peer ties, and a greater proportion of emotionally close ties. In sex-stratified models, density was related to alcohol use for males but not females. Drug use was associated with an increased number of peer ties, and the increased proportion of network members’ discussion and acceptance of drug use, respectively. We also found that online network density and total numbers of ties were associated with more personal drug use for males but not females. Conversely, we noted that social norms were related to increased drug use and this relationship was stronger for females than males. We discuss the implications of our findings for substance use and online network research.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Adams, C. E., & Nagoshi, C. T. (1999). Changes over one semester in drinking game playing and alcohol use and problems in a college student sample. Substance Abuse, 20, 97–106. PubMed
Barbee, A. P., Gulley, M. R., & Cunningham, M. R. (1990). Support seeking in personal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 531–540. CrossRef
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Barnett, T. E., & Caldwell, C. H. (2007). Working in high school and adaptation in the transition to young adulthood among African American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 877–890. CrossRef
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Johns, M. M., Glowacki, P., Stoddard, S., & Volz, E. (2012). Innovative recruitment using online netowkrs: Lessons learned from an online study of alcohol and other drug use utilizing a web-based Respondent Driven Sampling (webRDS) strategy. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 834–838. PubMed
Bray, J. W., Galvin, D. M., & Cluff, L. A. (2011). Young adults in the workplace: A multisite initiative of substance use prevention programs (pp. 1–101). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International. CrossRef
CDC. (2010). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59, 1–142.
Cerwonka, E. R., Isbell, T. R., & Hansen, C. E. (2000). Psychosocial factors as predictors of unsafe sexual practices among young adults. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 141–153. PubMed
Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015–1026. CrossRef
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Donato, F., Monarca, S., Chiesa, R., Feretti, D., & Nardi, G. (1994). Smoking among high school students in 10 Italian towns: Patterns and covariates. Substance Use and Misuse, 29, 1537–1557. CrossRef
Felmlee, D. H. (1999). Social norms in same-and cross-gender friendships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62, 53–67. CrossRef
Franken, R. E., Gibson, K. J., & Mohan, P. (1990). Sensation seeking and disclosure to close and casual friends. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 829–832. CrossRef
Giordano, P. C. (2003). Relationships in adolescence. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 257–281. CrossRef
Haynie, D. L. (2001). Delinquent peers revisited: Does network structure matter? American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1013–1057. CrossRef
Henrich, C. C., Kuperminc, G. P., Sack, A., Blatt, S. J., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2000). Characteristics and homogeneity of early adolescent friendship groups: A comparison of male and female clique and nonclique members. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 15–26. CrossRef
Henry, D. B., & Kobus, K. (2007). Early adolescent social networks and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 27, 346–362. CrossRef
Hussong, A. M. (2002). Differentiating peer contexts and risk for adolescent substance use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 207–220. CrossRef
Israel, B. A. (1988). Social networks and health status: Linking theory, research, and practice. Patient Counselling and Health Education, 4, 65–79. CrossRef
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. A., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2009). Monitoring the future: National survey results on drug use, 1975– 2008: Volume II, College students and adults ages 19– 50. (NIH Publication No. 09-7403). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Kilmer, J. R., Walker, D. D., Lee, C. M., Palmer, R. S., Mallett, K. A., Fabiano, P., et al. (2006). Misperceptions of college student marijuana use: Implications for prevention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 277–281. PubMed
Kobus, K., & Henry, D. B. (2010). Interplay of network position and peer substance use in early adolescent cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 225–245. CrossRef
Krackhardt, D., & Stern, R. N. (1988). Informal networks and organizational crises: An experimental simulation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 123–140. CrossRef
Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media & mobile internet use among teens and young adults. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project.
Madden, M., & Zickuhr, K. (2011). 65% of online adults use social networking sites. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life.
Mazur, E., & Richards, L. (2011). Adolescents’ and emerging adults’ social networking online: Homophily or diversity? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 180–188. CrossRef
McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 415–444. CrossRef
Mennis, J., & Mason, M. J. (2012). Social and geographic contexts of adolescent substance use: The moderating effects of age and gender. Social Networks, 34, 150–157.
Nagoshi, C. T., Wood, M. D., Cote, C. C., & Abbit, S. M. (1994). College drinking game participation within the context of other predictors of alcohol use and problems. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 8, 203–213. CrossRef
Netting, N. S., & Burnett, M. L. (2004). Twenty years of student sexual behavior: Subcultural adaptations to a changing health environment. Adolescence, 39, 19–38. PubMed
Nezlek, J. B., Pilkington, C. J., & Bilbro, K. G. (1994). Moderation in excess: Binge drinking and social interaction among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drug Use, 54, 342–351.
Page, R. M., & Roland, M. (2004). Misperceptions of the prevalence of marijuana use among college students: Athletes and non-athletes. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 14, 61–75. CrossRef
Pearson, M., & Michell, L. (2000). Smoke rings: Social network analysis of friendship groups, smoking and drug-taking. Drugs: Education Prevention, and Policy, 7, 21–37. CrossRef
Pearson, M., & West, P. (2003). Drifting smoke rings. Connections, 25, 59–76.
Rai, A. A., Stanton, B., Wu, Y., Li, X., Galbraith, J., Cottrell, L., et al. (2003). Relative influences of perceived parental monitoring and perceived peer involvement on adolescent risk behaviors: an analysis of six cross-sectional data sets. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33, 108–118. PubMedCrossRef
Reifman A, Watson WK, McCourt A. (2006). Social networks and college drinking: Probing processes of social influence and selection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulleting, 32, 820–832. CrossRef
Rokach, A., & Orzeck, T. (2003). Coping with loneliness and drug use in young adults. Social Indicators Research, 61(3), 259–283. CrossRef
Smith, K. P., & Christakis, N. A. (2008). Social networks and health. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 405–429. CrossRef
Stoddard, S., Bauermeister, J. A., Gordon-Messer, D., Johns, M. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2012). Permissive norms and young adults’ alcohol and marijuana use: The role of online communities. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 73, 968–975.
Thombs, D. L., Beck, K. H., & Mahoney, C. A. (1993). Effects of social context and gender on drinking patterns of young adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 115–119. CrossRef
White, H. R., McMorris, B. J., Catalano, R. F., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., & Abbott, R. D. (2006). Increases in alcohol and marijuana use during the transition out of high school into emerging adulthood: The effects of leaving home, going to college, and high school protective factors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 810–822. PubMed
Wiggins, B., & Wiggins, J. A. (1992). Specification of the association between sociability and drinking level among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 137–141. PubMed
Williams, D. G. (1985). Gender, masculinity-femininity, and emotional intimacy in same-sex friendship. Sex Roles, 12, 587–600. CrossRef
Windle, M. (2000). Parental, sibling, and peer influences on adolescent substance use and alcohol problems. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 98–110. CrossRef
- Online Network Influences on Emerging Adults’ Alcohol and Drug Use
Stephanie H. Cook
José A. Bauermeister
Marc A. Zimmerman
- Springer US