Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research 1/2016

22-07-2015 | Brief Communication

Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong

Auteurs: Michael Y. Ni, Tom K. Li, Nancy X. Yu, Herbert Pang, Brandford H. Y. Chan, Gabriel M. Leung, Sunita M. Stewart

Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research | Uitgave 1/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Purpose

To examine whether the two-item version (CD-RISC2) of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, as well as significant correlation with the full scale, and to provide normative data for the CD-RISC and the CD-RISC2 in a Chinese general population in Hong Kong.

Methods

In total, 10,997 randomly selected participants aged ≥20 years completed the Chinese version of the CD-RISC (including the 2 items of the CD-RISC2), the Patient Health Questionnaire, Family Harmony Scale, Family APGAR, and CAGE Questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 were assessed.

Results

Cronbach’s α for CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 0.97 and 0.79, respectively. CD-RISC2 was associated with the 25-item version of the CD-RISC (r = 0.88), depressive symptoms (r s = −0.18), family harmony (r = 0.20), family functioning (r = 0.27) and was not associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.05). The mean score for the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 59.99 (SD = 13.92) and 5.03 (SD = 1.37), respectively. Men, younger individuals, and those with higher education or higher household income reported higher resilience levels.

Conclusions

The Chinese version of the CD-RISC2 was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure in assessing resilience among the general population in Hong Kong.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., & Gordon, U. L. (1995). Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorder. In S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler, & U. L. Gordon (Eds.), Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 3–26). New York: Oxford University Press. Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., & Gordon, U. L. (1995). Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorder. In S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler, & U. L. Gordon (Eds.), Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 3–26). New York: Oxford University Press.
2.
go back to reference Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82. PubMedCrossRef Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82. PubMedCrossRef
3.
4.
go back to reference Pangallo, A., Zibarras, L., Lewis, R., & Flaxman, P. (2015). Resilience through the lens of interactionism: A systematic review. Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 1–20. PubMedCrossRef Pangallo, A., Zibarras, L., Lewis, R., & Flaxman, P. (2015). Resilience through the lens of interactionism: A systematic review. Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 1–20. PubMedCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2007). An abbreviated version of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry Research, 152(2–3), 293–297. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2007). An abbreviated version of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry Research, 152(2–3), 293–297. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Yu, X. N., & Zhang, J. (2007). Factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) with Chinese people. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(1), 19–30. CrossRef Yu, X. N., & Zhang, J. (2007). Factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) with Chinese people. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(1), 19–30. CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Leung, G. M., Ni, M. Y., Wong, P. T. K., Lee, P. H., Chan, B. H. Y., Stewart, S. M., et al. (2015). Cohort Profile: FAMILY Cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology. doi: 10.​1093/​ije/​dyu257. Leung, G. M., Ni, M. Y., Wong, P. T. K., Lee, P. H., Chan, B. H. Y., Stewart, S. M., et al. (2015). Cohort Profile: FAMILY Cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology. doi: 10.​1093/​ije/​dyu257.
8.
go back to reference Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Yu, X. N., Tam, W. W. S., Wong, P. T. K., Lam, T. H., & Stewart, S. M. (2012). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for measuring depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kong. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53, 95–102. PubMedCrossRef Yu, X. N., Tam, W. W. S., Wong, P. T. K., Lam, T. H., & Stewart, S. M. (2012). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for measuring depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kong. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53, 95–102. PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Kavikondala, S., Stewart, S. M., Ni, M. Y., Chan, B. H., Lee, P. H., Li, K. K., et al. (2015). Structure and validity of Family Harmony Scale: An instrument for measuring harmony. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.​1037/​pas0000131. Kavikondala, S., Stewart, S. M., Ni, M. Y., Chan, B. H., Lee, P. H., Li, K. K., et al. (2015). Structure and validity of Family Harmony Scale: An instrument for measuring harmony. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.​1037/​pas0000131.
11.
go back to reference Smilkstein, G. (1978). The family APGAR: A proposal for a family function test and its use by physicians. The Journal of Family Practice, 6(6), 1231–1239. PubMed Smilkstein, G. (1978). The family APGAR: A proposal for a family function test and its use by physicians. The Journal of Family Practice, 6(6), 1231–1239. PubMed
12.
go back to reference Nan, H., Lee, P. H., Ni, M. Y., Chan, B. H. Y., & Lam, T. H. (2013). Effects of depressive symptoms and family satisfaction on health related quality of life: The Hong Kong FAMILY Study. PLoS One, 8(3), e58436. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Nan, H., Lee, P. H., Ni, M. Y., Chan, B. H. Y., & Lam, T. H. (2013). Effects of depressive symptoms and family satisfaction on health related quality of life: The Hong Kong FAMILY Study. PLoS One, 8(3), e58436. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Department of Health. (2011). Action plan to reduce alcohol-related harm in Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Department of Health. (2011). Action plan to reduce alcohol-related harm in Hong Kong. Hong Kong.
14.
go back to reference Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2012). Estimating ordinal reliability for Likert-type and ordinal item response data: A conceptual, empirical, and practical guide. Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 17(3), 1–13. Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2012). Estimating ordinal reliability for Likert-type and ordinal item response data: A conceptual, empirical, and practical guide. Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 17(3), 1–13.
15.
go back to reference Eisinga, R., Grotenhuis, M., & Pelzer, B. (2013). The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach, or Spearman-Brown? International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 637–642. PubMedCrossRef Eisinga, R., Grotenhuis, M., & Pelzer, B. (2013). The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach, or Spearman-Brown? International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 637–642. PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Garmezy, N. (1993). Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry, 56(1), 127–136. PubMed Garmezy, N. (1993). Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry, 56(1), 127–136. PubMed
17.
go back to reference Yu, X. N., Lau, J. T. F., Mak, W. W. S., Zhang, J., & Lui, W. W. S. (2011). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale among Chinese adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52(2), 218–224. PubMedCrossRef Yu, X. N., Lau, J. T. F., Mak, W. W. S., Zhang, J., & Lui, W. W. S. (2011). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale among Chinese adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52(2), 218–224. PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Goldstein, A. L., Faulkner, B., & Wekerle, C. (2013). The relationship among internal resilience, smoking, alcohol use, and depression symptoms in emerging adults transitioning out of child welfare. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(1), 22–32. PubMedCrossRef Goldstein, A. L., Faulkner, B., & Wekerle, C. (2013). The relationship among internal resilience, smoking, alcohol use, and depression symptoms in emerging adults transitioning out of child welfare. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(1), 22–32. PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Hamlett, A., Ryan, L., Serrano-Trespalacios, P., & Wolfinger, R. (2003). Mixed models for assessing correlation in the presence of replication. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 53(4), 442–450. PubMedCrossRef Hamlett, A., Ryan, L., Serrano-Trespalacios, P., & Wolfinger, R. (2003). Mixed models for assessing correlation in the presence of replication. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 53(4), 442–450. PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Routledge. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Routledge.
21.
go back to reference Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
22.
go back to reference Baek, H. S., Lee, K. U., Joo, E. J., Lee, M. Y., & Choi, K. S. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. Psychiatry Investigation, 7(2), 109–115. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Baek, H. S., Lee, K. U., Joo, E. J., Lee, M. Y., & Choi, K. S. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. Psychiatry Investigation, 7(2), 109–115. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Lee, J. W., Jones, P. S., Mineyama, Y., & Zhang, X. E. (2002). Cultural differences in responses to a Likert scale. Research in Nursing & Health, 25(4), 295–306. CrossRef Lee, J. W., Jones, P. S., Mineyama, Y., & Zhang, X. E. (2002). Cultural differences in responses to a Likert scale. Research in Nursing & Health, 25(4), 295–306. CrossRef
24.
go back to reference Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Jeong-Yeon, L., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879. PubMedCrossRef Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Jeong-Yeon, L., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879. PubMedCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Davidson, R. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience, 15(5), 689–695. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Davidson, R. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience, 15(5), 689–695. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178. PubMed Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178. PubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong
Auteurs
Michael Y. Ni
Tom K. Li
Nancy X. Yu
Herbert Pang
Brandford H. Y. Chan
Gabriel M. Leung
Sunita M. Stewart
Publicatiedatum
22-07-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer International Publishing
Gepubliceerd in
Quality of Life Research / Uitgave 1/2016
Print ISSN: 0962-9343
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2649
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-015-1072-x

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2016

Quality of Life Research 1/2016 Naar de uitgave