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22-07-2015 | Brief Communication | Uitgave 1/2016

Quality of Life Research 1/2016

Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 1/2016
Michael Y. Ni, Tom K. Li, Nancy X. Yu, Herbert Pang, Brandford H. Y. Chan, Gabriel M. Leung, Sunita M. Stewart



To examine whether the two-item version (CD-RISC2) of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, as well as significant correlation with the full scale, and to provide normative data for the CD-RISC and the CD-RISC2 in a Chinese general population in Hong Kong.


In total, 10,997 randomly selected participants aged ≥20 years completed the Chinese version of the CD-RISC (including the 2 items of the CD-RISC2), the Patient Health Questionnaire, Family Harmony Scale, Family APGAR, and CAGE Questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 were assessed.


Cronbach’s α for CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 0.97 and 0.79, respectively. CD-RISC2 was associated with the 25-item version of the CD-RISC (r = 0.88), depressive symptoms (r s = −0.18), family harmony (r = 0.20), family functioning (r = 0.27) and was not associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.05). The mean score for the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 59.99 (SD = 13.92) and 5.03 (SD = 1.37), respectively. Men, younger individuals, and those with higher education or higher household income reported higher resilience levels.


The Chinese version of the CD-RISC2 was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure in assessing resilience among the general population in Hong Kong.

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