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06-02-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 4/2020

Mindfulness 4/2020

Increasing Mindfulness Skills of Veterans With PTSD Through Daily Mindfulness Training Incorporated Into an Intensive Treatment Program

Mindfulness > Uitgave 4/2020
Michelle L. Miller, Jenna M. Bagley, Patricia Normand, Michael B. Brennan, Rebecca Van Horn, Mark H. Pollack, Philip Held
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Mindfulness training is frequently included as part of an integrative care approach to treating PTSD in veterans. However, the utility and acceptability of daily group mindfulness training in an intensive treatment program (ITP) for PTSD have not been explored. The study objectives were to determine: (a) whether mindfulness skills significantly increased from pre- to post-treatment and (b) if daily group mindfulness training was acceptable to veterans.


Veterans (N = 170 outpatients, age M = 40.7 (SD 9.3), 67.6% male) in this prospective study were consecutively enrolled in a 3-week ITP that included daily mindfulness group sessions. Mindfulness skills were assessed using the Five Facet of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) at intake and post-treatment. Acceptability was assessed using an anonymous post-treatment program satisfaction survey.


Paired t tests demonstrated significant increases in overall mindfulness skills from pre- to post-treatment (t(169) = − 6.33, p < 0.001, d = 0.49). Small to medium effect sizes were observed across subscales: describing, (t(169) = − 5.91, p < 0.001, d = 0.38); acting with awareness, (t(169) = − 3.70, p < 0.001, d = 0.29); nonjudging, (t(169) = − 7.54, p < 0.001, d = 0.58); and nonreactivity, (t(169) = − 4.84, p < 0.001, d = 0.41). Most veterans (n = 125, 74.4%) found daily mindfulness training moderately to very helpful.


Veterans’ mindfulness skills significantly increased over the course of a 3-week ITP, and mindfulness training was found acceptable. Mindfulness training can be delivered daily as part of an ITP for veterans with PTSD, and mindfulness skills can meaningfully increase over the course of 3 weeks. A significant limitation is the lack of control condition.

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