01-08-2012 | Empirical Research
Open Access

Identity Statuses as Developmental Trajectories: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescents

cover Bekijk de inhoud
Webpagina 1
Webpagina 2
Webpagina 3
Webpagina 4
Webpagina 5
Webpagina 6
Webpagina 7
Webpagina 8
Webpagina 9
Webpagina 10
Webpagina 11
Webpagina 12
Webpagina 13
Webpagina 14
Tijdschrift:
Journal of Youth and Adolescence > Uitgave 8/2012
Auteurs:
Wim Meeus, Rens van de Schoot, Loes Keijsers, Susan Branje
Abstract
This study tested whether Marcia’s original identity statuses of achievement, moratorium, early closure (a new label for foreclosure), and diffusion, can be considered identity status trajectories. That is, we examined whether these statuses are distinct and relatively stable, over-time configurations of commitment strength, levels of in-depth exploration of present commitments, and consideration of alternative commitments. The study examined identity development in a five-wave study of 923 early-to-middle (49.3% female) and 390 middle-to-late adolescents (56.7% female), covering the ages of 12–20. Using Latent class growth analysis (LCGA), the authors found that Marcia’s ( 1966) statuses are indeed identity status trajectories. Two kinds of moratorium were also found: the classical moratorium and searching moratorium. Support was found for Waterman’s developmental hypothesis of the identity status model: the number of achievers was significantly higher, and the number of diffusions lower, in middle-to-late adolescence than in early-to-middle adolescence. Females were more often in the advanced identity status trajectories, and stable differences were found between the trajectories in psychosocial adjustment. Study findings highlight that identity formation should be conceptualized as an over-time process.

Onze productaanbevelingen

Literatuur
References
Adams, G., & Jones, R. (1983). Female adolescents’ identity development: Age comparisons and perceived child-rearing experience. Developmental Psychology, 19, 249–256. CrossRef
Archer, S. (1982). The lower age boundaries of identity development. Child Development, 53, 1551–1556. CrossRef
Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. PubMedCrossRef
Baerveldt, C., Van Rossem, R., & Vermande, M. (2003). Pupils’ delinquency and their social networks: A test of some network assumptions of the ability and inability models of delinquency. Netherlands’ Journal of Social Sciences, 39, 107–125.
Berman, S. L., Weems, C. F., & Stickle, T. R. (2006). Existential anxiety in adolescents: Prevalence, structure, association with psychological symptoms and identity development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 303–310. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. (1989). Identity style: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 268–282. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M., & Adams, G. (1999). Reevaluating the identity status paradigm: Still useful after 35 years. Developmental Review, 19, 557–590. CrossRef
Beunen, G., Thomis, M., Maes, H. H., Loos, R., Malina, R. M., Claessens, A. L., et al. (2000). Genetic variance of adolescent growth in stature. Annals of Human Biology, 27, 173–186. PubMedCrossRef
Block, J. H., & Block, J. (2006). Venturing a 30-year longitudinal study. American Psychologist, 61, 315–327. PubMedCrossRef
Bollen, K. (1989). Structural equation modeling with latent variables. New York: Wiley.
Côté, J., & Schwartz, S. (2002). Comparing psychological and sociological approaches to identity: Identity status, identity capital, and the individualization process. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 571–586. PubMedCrossRef
Craig-Bray, L., Adams, G. R., & Dobson, W. R. (1988). Identity formation and social relations during late adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 173–187. CrossRef
Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008a). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 983–996. CrossRef
Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., & Meeus, W. (2008b). Capturing the dynamics of identity formation in various ethnic groups: Development and validation of a three-dimensional model. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 207–222. PubMedCrossRef
Crocetti, E., Schwartz, S., Fermani, A., & Meeus, W. (2010). The Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): Italian validation and cross-national comparisons. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26, 172–186. CrossRef
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Grotevant, H. (1987). Toward a process model of identity formation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2, 203–222. CrossRef
Guerra, A., & Braungart-Rieker, J. (1999). Predicting career indecision in college students: The role of of identity formation and parental relationship factors. Career Development Quarterly, 47, 255–266. CrossRef
Hill, K. G., White, H. R., Chung, I.-J., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2000). Early adult outcomes of adolescent binge drinking: Person- and variable-centered analyses of binge drinking trajectories. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 892–901. PubMedCrossRef
Klimstra, T. A., Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., Branje, S. J. T., & Meeus, W. (2009). Maturation of personality in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 898–912. PubMedCrossRef
Klugkist, I., Laudy, O., & Hoijtink, H. (2010). Bayesian evaluation of equality and inequality constrained hypotheses for contingency tables. Psychological Methods, 15, 281–299. PubMedCrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1985). The children’s depression inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 995–998. PubMed
Kroger, J., Martinussen, M., & Marcia, J. (2010). Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 683–698. PubMedCrossRef
Lewis, H. (2003). Differences in ego identity among college students across age, ethnicity, and gender. Identity, 3, 159–189. CrossRef
Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Soenens, B., Beyers, W., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Identity statuses based upon four rather than two identity dimensions: Extending and refining Marcia’s paradigm. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 605–618. CrossRef
Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S., Berzonsky, M., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Smits, I., et al. (2008a). Capturing ruminative exploration: Extending the four-dimensional model of identity formation in adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 58–82. CrossRef
Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Goossens, L., Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2008b). Developmental typologies of identity formation and adjustment in female emerging adults: A latent class growth analysis approach. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 595–619. CrossRef
Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551–558. PubMedCrossRef
Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159–187). New York: Wiley.
Marcia, J. E. (1993a). The ego identity status approach to ego identity. In J. Marcia, A. Waterman, D. Matteson, S. Archer, & J. Orlofsky (Eds.), Ego identity (pp. 3–21). New York: Springer Verlag. CrossRef
Marcia, J. E. (1993b). The status of the statuses: Research review. In J. Marcia, A. Waterman, D. Matteson, S. Archer, & J. Orlofsky (Eds.), Ego identity (pp. 22–41). New York: Springer Verlag. CrossRef
Markstrom, C., & Marshall, S. (2007). The psychosocial inventory of ego-strengths: Examination of theory and psychometric properties. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 63–79. PubMedCrossRef
Markstrom, C., Sabino, V., Turner, B., & Berman, R. (1997). The psychosocial inventory of ego-strengths: Development and validation of a new Eriksonian measure. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 705–732. CrossRef
Meeus, W. (1996). Studies on identity development in adolescence: An overview of research and some new data. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 569–598. CrossRef
Meeus, W. (2011). The study of adolescent identity formation 2000–2010. A review of longitudinal research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 75–94.
Meeus, W., Akse, J., Branje, S., Ter Bogt, T., Delsing, M., Van Doorn, M., et al. (2006). Codebook CONAMORE: Conflicts And Management Of Relationships. Utrecht: Research Centre Adolescent Development.
Meeus, W., & Deković, M. (1995). Identity development, parental and peer support in adolescence: Results of a national Dutch survey. Adolescence, 30, 931–945. PubMed
Meeus, W., Iedema, J., Helsen, M., & Vollebergh, W. (1999). Patterns of adolescent identity development: Review of literature and longitudinal analysis. Developmental Review, 19, 419–461. CrossRef
Meeus, W., Van de Schoot, R., Keijsers, L., Schwartz, S. J., & Branje, S. (2010). On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation. A five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence. Child Development, 81, 1565–1581.
Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 882–891. PubMedCrossRef
Nagin, D. S. (1999). Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semi-parametric group-based approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139–157. CrossRef
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Statistics Netherlands. (2008a). Statline: Mbo; leerlingen en geslaagden. Voorburg, The Netherlands: Statististics Netherlands.
Statistics Netherlands. (2008b). Statline: Vo; leerlingen en geslaagden. Voorburg, The Netherlands: Statistics Netherlands.
Nylund, K., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 535–569. CrossRef
Reinecke, J. (2006). Longitudinal analysis of adolescent’s deviant and delinquent behavior. Methodology, 2, 100–112.
Rothman, K. M. (1984). Multivariate analysis of the relationship of personal concerns to adolescent ego identity status. Adolescence, 19, 713–727.
Schwartz, S., Côté, J., & Arnett, J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood: Two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth & Society, 37, 201–229. CrossRef
Schwartz, S., & Montgomery, M. (2002). Similarities or differences in identity development? The impact of acculturation and gender on identity process and outcome. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 359–372. CrossRef
Van de Schoot, R., Hoijtink, H., Mulder, J., Van Aken, M. A. G., Orobio de Castro, B., Meeus, W., et al. (2011). Evaluating expectations about negative emotional states of aggressive boys using Bayesian model selection. Developmental Psychology, 47, 203–212. PubMedCrossRef
Van Hoof, A. (1999). The identity status field re-reviewed: An update of unresolved and neglected issues with a view on some alternative approaches. Developmental Review, 19, 497–556. CrossRef
Waterman, A. S. (1982). Identity development from adolescence to adulthood: An extension of Theory and a Review of Research. Developmental Psychology, 18, 341–358. CrossRef
Over dit artikel