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2011 | OriginalPaper | Hoofdstuk

10. Hormonale Status En Cardiovasculair Risico

Auteurs: Prof. Dr. I. R. Yvonne Van Der Schouw, Dr. Angela Maas, Dr. Miriam De Kleijn

Gepubliceerd in: Handboek gynaecardiologie

Uitgeverij: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum

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Abstract

De menopauze is het gevolg van ovariële veroudering met een daling van het aantal resterende follikels. Vrouwen worden geboren met de complete voorraad van miljoenen follikels voor de rest van hun reproductieve leven. Na de geboorte daalt het aantal follikels snel, bij de puberteit zijn nog rond de 300.000 follikels aanwezig. Vervolgens neemt het aantal bij iedere menstruele cyclus met honderden af. Deze afname heeft ook plaats wanneer er geen ovulatie optreedt, zoals tijdens zwangerschappen, borstvoeding, of gebruik van orale anticonceptie. Vanaf een leeftijd van 37 à 38 jaar vindt de afname van het aantal follikels in een versneld tempo plaats. Rond de 45 à 46 jaar is de follikelvoorraad afgenomen tot enkele duizenden, waarbij de menstruele cyclus onregelmatig gaat worden.1 Als er nog ongeveer duizend follikels over zijn kan het cyclische hormonale proces dat nodig is om de menstruatie op gang te brengen niet meer onderhouden worden en treedt de menopauze op.2 De gemiddelde leeftijd waarop deze optreedt is 51 jaar en dit is vrij constant over de tijd en over populaties wereldwijd.3 De variatie in menopauzeleeftijd tussen individuele vrouwen is echter groot, ruwweg tussen de 40 en 60 jaar.3 De niveaus van circulerende oestrogenen dalen na de menopauze tot ongeveer 20% van de premenopauzale waarden. Bij een natuurlijke menopauze voor het 40e jaar spreken we van prematuur ovarieel falen (POF).
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Metagegevens
Titel
Hormonale Status En Cardiovasculair Risico
Auteurs
Prof. Dr. I. R. Yvonne Van Der Schouw
Dr. Angela Maas
Dr. Miriam De Kleijn
Copyright
2011
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-313-8782-3_10