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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1757-1146-6-42) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Andrew M Galica, Thomas J Hagedorn contributed equally to this work.
The authors have no competing interests to report.
AMG contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data and drafted the original manuscript. TJH contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data and drafted the original manuscript. ABD carried out the statistical analyses, contributed to the interpretation of data and the revision of the manuscript. JLR participated in the interpretation of data and the drafting and revision of the manuscript. HJH participated in the study conception and design and provided critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. VAC made substantial contributions to the drafting and revision of the manuscript. MTH conceived of the study, was responsible for the acquisition of data, contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data, and provided critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women.
A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated.
There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures.
These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments.
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- Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study
Andrew M Galica
Thomas J Hagedorn
Alyssa B Dufour
Jody L Riskowski
Howard J Hillstrom
Virginia A Casey
Marian T Hannan
- BioMed Central