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01-12-2013 | Methodology | Uitgave 1/2013 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2013

Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2013
Auteurs:
Jacqueline Domjanic, Martin Fieder, Horst Seidler, Philipp Mitteroecker
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1757-1146-6-27) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

JD carried out the surface scans, extracted the footprints from the surface scans, digitized the landmarks, and participated in the data analysis and the drafting of the manuscript. MF participated in the data collection and the design of the study. HS participated in the design and coordination of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. PM analyzed the data, wrote the manuscript, and contributed to the design of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women.

Methods

The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

Results

The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI.

Conclusions

Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design.

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Extra materiaal
Authors’ original file for figure 1
13047_2013_566_MOESM1_ESM.tif
Authors’ original file for figure 2
13047_2013_566_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 3
13047_2013_566_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 4
13047_2013_566_MOESM4_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 5
13047_2013_566_MOESM5_ESM.pdf
Literatuur
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