Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1757-1146-6-27) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
JD carried out the surface scans, extracted the footprints from the surface scans, digitized the landmarks, and participated in the data analysis and the drafting of the manuscript. MF participated in the data collection and the design of the study. HS participated in the design and coordination of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. PM analyzed the data, wrote the manuscript, and contributed to the design of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women.
The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis.
The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI.
Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design.
Authors’ original file for figure 113047_2013_566_MOESM1_ESM.tif
Authors’ original file for figure 213047_2013_566_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 313047_2013_566_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 413047_2013_566_MOESM4_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 513047_2013_566_MOESM5_ESM.pdf
Mauch M, Grau S, Krauss I, Maiwald C, Horstmann T: Foot morphology of normal, underweight and overweight children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008, 32 (7): 1068-1075. 10.1038/ijo.2008.52. CrossRef
Gonzalez JC, Nacher B, Alcantara E, Alemany S, Gimeno CS, Sanchez J, Dejoz R, Prat J: Study of children footprints growth using geometric morphometric techniques. 2005, Cleveland, USA: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics
Ciccarelli A, Mantini S, Colaicomo B, Sorrenti S, Scrimaglio R, Ripani M: Geometric morphometric approach in the study of the footprint variation in children between 6 and 12 years of age. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2011, 116 (1): 43-
Agic A: Foot morphometric phenomena. Coll Antropol. 2007, 31 (2): 495-501. PubMed
Bookstein FL: Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. 1991, New York: Cambridge University Press
Slice D: Geometric morphometrics. Annu Rev Anthropol. 2007, 36: 261-281. 10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120613. CrossRef
Mitteroecker P, Gunz P: Advances in geometric morphometrics. Evol Biol. 2009, 36: 235-247. 10.1007/s11692-009-9055-x. CrossRef
Dryden IL, Mardia KV: Statistical shape analysis. 1998, New York: John Wiley and Sons
Rohlf FJ, Slice DE: Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Syst Zool. 1990, 39: 40-59. 10.2307/2992207. CrossRef
Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K: Shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. Hystrix. in press
Cabrera J, Tsui K-L, Goonetilleke RS: A scale model for fitting object shapes from fixed location data. IIE Trans. 2004, 36: 1099-1105. 10.1080/07408170490500672. CrossRef
Gunz P, Mitteroecker P: Semilandmarks: a method for quantifying curves and surfaces. Hystrix in press. 10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292
Mardia KV, Bookstein F, Moreton I: Statistical assessement of bilateral symmetry of shapes. Biometika. 2000, 87: 285-300. CrossRef
Klingenberg CP, McIntyre GS: Geometric morphometrics of developmental instability: analyzing patterns of fluctuating asymmetry with Procrustes methods. Evolution. 1998, 52: 1363-1375. 10.2307/2411306. CrossRef
Good P: Permutation tests: a practical guide to resampling methods for testing hypotheses. 2000, New York: Springer CrossRef
Speksnijder CM, Munckhof RJH, Moonen SAFCM, Walenkamp GHIM: The higher the heel the higher the forefoot-pressure in ten healthy women. Foot. 2005, 15: 17-21. 10.1016/j.foot.2004.10.001. CrossRef
- Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women
- BioMed Central