Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 12/2020

12-09-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Effects of Cognitively-Based Compassion Training on Parenting Interactions and Children’s Empathy

Auteurs: Ashleigh M. Engbretson, Julie A. Poehlmann-Tynan, Carolyn J. Zahn-Waxler, Abra J. Vigna, Emily D. Gerstein, Charles L. Raison

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 12/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT) aims to cultivate participants’ compassion and enhance their well-being. CBCT was developed for college students and has been adapted for several unique populations, such as children in foster care, but it has only recently been used with parents of infants and young children. This analysis of data from a preliminary efficacy study examined effects of CBCT on parenting interactions and early empathy in infants and young children (aged 9 months to 5 years, 4 months). The study also examined the perceived benefits and challenges of participating in a 20-h CBCT intervention for parents.

Methods

Thirty-nine families from university-affiliated preschools participated in this study; 25 parents were in the CBCT group and 14 parents were in a wait list control group. Parents were evaluated before and after the intervention, as well as after each session on their impressions of the class and experience with the assignments. Families were evaluated at pre- and post-intervention on observed parent-child interactions and child empathy.

Results

Parents found that participating in CBCT was a positive, even life-changing experience for them, though finding time to practice the guided meditations was difficult. However, CBCT did not improve sensitive and responsive interactions between parents and children or young children’s empathy assessed in a lab setting.

Conclusions

CBCT for parents was viewed positively by participants but it did not change their observed parenting interactions or young children’s observed empathy across a 3-month period.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. N. (1978/2015). Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. NY: Taylor and Francis. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. N. (1978/2015). Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. NY: Taylor and Francis.
go back to reference Bellg, A. J., Borrelli, B., Resnick, B., Hecht, J., Sharp Minicucci, D., Ory, M., Ogedegbe, G., Orwig, D., Ernst, D., & Czajkowski, S. (2004). Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: best practices and recommendations from the NIH Behavior Change Consortium. Health Psychology, 23(5), 443–451.CrossRef Bellg, A. J., Borrelli, B., Resnick, B., Hecht, J., Sharp Minicucci, D., Ory, M., Ogedegbe, G., Orwig, D., Ernst, D., & Czajkowski, S. (2004). Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: best practices and recommendations from the NIH Behavior Change Consortium. Health Psychology, 23(5), 443–451.CrossRef
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss, Vol 1: Attachment. NY: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss, Vol 1: Attachment. NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Burns, B. M., & Maritz, Y. (2015). Mindful parents, resilient children: The significance of compassion for parenting. In T. G. Plante (Ed.), The psychology of compassion and cruelty: understanding the emotional, spiritual, and religious influences (pp. 125–141). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. Burns, B. M., & Maritz, Y. (2015). Mindful parents, resilient children: The significance of compassion for parenting. In T. G. Plante (Ed.), The psychology of compassion and cruelty: understanding the emotional, spiritual, and religious influences (pp. 125–141). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
go back to reference Clark, R. (1985/2017). The parent-child Early Relational Assessment: instrument and manual (revised ed.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Medical School, Department of Psychiatry. Clark, R. (1985/2017). The parent-child Early Relational Assessment: instrument and manual (revised ed.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Medical School, Department of Psychiatry.
go back to reference Clark, R. (1999). The parent-child Early Relational Assessment: a factorial validity study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(5), 821–846.CrossRef Clark, R. (1999). The parent-child Early Relational Assessment: a factorial validity study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(5), 821–846.CrossRef
go back to reference Clark, R., Paulson, A., & Conlin, S. (1993). Assessment of developmental status and parent-infant relationships: the therapeutic process of evaluation. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (pp. 191–209). New York: Guilford Press. Clark, R., Paulson, A., & Conlin, S. (1993). Assessment of developmental status and parent-infant relationships: the therapeutic process of evaluation. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (pp. 191–209). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences–second edition. New Jersey: 12 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Hillsdale. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences–second edition. New Jersey: 12 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Hillsdale.
go back to reference Crnic, K. A., Gaze, C., & Hoffman, C. (2005). Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5. Infant and Child Development, 14, 117–132.CrossRef Crnic, K. A., Gaze, C., & Hoffman, C. (2005). Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5. Infant and Child Development, 14, 117–132.CrossRef
go back to reference Cuijpers, P., Weitz, E., Karyotaki, E., Garber, J., & Andersson, G. (2015). The effects of psychological treatment of maternal depression on children and parental functioning: a meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(2), 237–245.CrossRef Cuijpers, P., Weitz, E., Karyotaki, E., Garber, J., & Andersson, G. (2015). The effects of psychological treatment of maternal depression on children and parental functioning: a meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(2), 237–245.CrossRef
go back to reference Curtis, P. R., Kaiser, A. P., Estabrook, R., & Roberts, M. Y. (2019). The longitudinal effects of early language intervention on children’s problem behaviors. Child Development, 90(2), 576–592.CrossRef Curtis, P. R., Kaiser, A. P., Estabrook, R., & Roberts, M. Y. (2019). The longitudinal effects of early language intervention on children’s problem behaviors. Child Development, 90(2), 576–592.CrossRef
go back to reference Davidov, M., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Untangling the links of parental responsiveness to distress and warmth to child outcomes. Child Development, 77(1), 44–58.CrossRef Davidov, M., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Untangling the links of parental responsiveness to distress and warmth to child outcomes. Child Development, 77(1), 44–58.CrossRef
go back to reference Davidov, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Roth-Hanania, R., & Knafo, A. (2013). Concern for others in the first year of life: theory, evidence, and avenues for research. Child Development Perspectives, 7(2), 126–131.CrossRef Davidov, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Roth-Hanania, R., & Knafo, A. (2013). Concern for others in the first year of life: theory, evidence, and avenues for research. Child Development Perspectives, 7(2), 126–131.CrossRef
go back to reference Deater-Deckard, K. (2005). Parenting stress and children’s development: Introduction to the special issue. Infant and Child Development, 14(2), 111–115.CrossRef Deater-Deckard, K. (2005). Parenting stress and children’s development: Introduction to the special issue. Infant and Child Development, 14(2), 111–115.CrossRef
go back to reference Dodds, S. E., Pace, T. W., Bell, M. L., Fiero, M., Negi, L. T., Raison, C. L., & Weihs, K. L. (2015). Feasibility of Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT) for breast cancer survivors: a randomized, wait list-controlled pilot study. Support Care Cancer, 23(12), 3599–3608.CrossRef Dodds, S. E., Pace, T. W., Bell, M. L., Fiero, M., Negi, L. T., Raison, C. L., & Weihs, K. L. (2015). Feasibility of Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT) for breast cancer survivors: a randomized, wait list-controlled pilot study. Support Care Cancer, 23(12), 3599–3608.CrossRef
go back to reference Dumas, J. E. (2005). Mindfulness-based parent training: strategies to lessen the grip of automaticity in families with disruptive children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 779–791.CrossRef Dumas, J. E. (2005). Mindfulness-based parent training: strategies to lessen the grip of automaticity in families with disruptive children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 779–791.CrossRef
go back to reference Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). A model of mindful parenting: implications for parent-child relationships and prevention research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12, 255–270.CrossRef Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). A model of mindful parenting: implications for parent-child relationships and prevention research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12, 255–270.CrossRef
go back to reference Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., Gayles, J. G., Geier, M. H., & Greenberg, M. T. (2015). Can mindful parenting be observed? Relations between observational ratings of mother–youth interactions and mothers’ self-report of mindful parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(2), 276–282.CrossRef Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., Gayles, J. G., Geier, M. H., & Greenberg, M. T. (2015). Can mindful parenting be observed? Relations between observational ratings of mother–youth interactions and mothers’ self-report of mindful parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(2), 276–282.CrossRef
go back to reference Durik, A. M., Hyde, J. S., & Clark, R. (2000). Sequelae of cesarean and vaginal deliveries: psychosocial outcomes for mothers and infants. Developmental Psychology, 36, 251–260.CrossRef Durik, A. M., Hyde, J. S., & Clark, R. (2000). Sequelae of cesarean and vaginal deliveries: psychosocial outcomes for mothers and infants. Developmental Psychology, 36, 251–260.CrossRef
go back to reference Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51(1), 665–697.CrossRef Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51(1), 665–697.CrossRef
go back to reference Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Young children’s coping with interpersonal anger. Child Development, 63(1), 116–128.CrossRef Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Young children’s coping with interpersonal anger. Child Development, 63(1), 116–128.CrossRef
go back to reference Fearon, R. M., & Belsky, J. (2004). Attachment and attention: protection in relation to gender and cumulative social-contextual adversity. Child Development, 75(6), 1677–1693.CrossRef Fearon, R. M., & Belsky, J. (2004). Attachment and attention: protection in relation to gender and cumulative social-contextual adversity. Child Development, 75(6), 1677–1693.CrossRef
go back to reference Ferrari, M., Hunt, C., Harrysunker, A., Abbott, M. J., Beath, A. P., & Einstein, D. A. (2019). Self-compassion interventions and psychosocial outcomes: a meta-analysis of RCTs. Mindfulness, 10, 1455–1473. Ferrari, M., Hunt, C., Harrysunker, A., Abbott, M. J., Beath, A. P., & Einstein, D. A. (2019). Self-compassion interventions and psychosocial outcomes: a meta-analysis of RCTs. Mindfulness, 10, 1455–1473.
go back to reference Grusec, J., & Davidov, M. (2010). Integrating different perspectives on socialization theory and research: a domain-specific approach. Child Development, 81(3), 687–709.CrossRef Grusec, J., & Davidov, M. (2010). Integrating different perspectives on socialization theory and research: a domain-specific approach. Child Development, 81(3), 687–709.CrossRef
go back to reference Kim, S., & Kochanska, G. (2017). Relational antecedents and social implications of the emotion of empathy: evidence from three studies. Emotion, 17(6), 981–992.CrossRef Kim, S., & Kochanska, G. (2017). Relational antecedents and social implications of the emotion of empathy: evidence from three studies. Emotion, 17(6), 981–992.CrossRef
go back to reference Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Van Hulle, C., Robinson, J. L., & Rhee, S. H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: Genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 8(6), 737–752.CrossRef Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Van Hulle, C., Robinson, J. L., & Rhee, S. H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: Genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 8(6), 737–752.CrossRef
go back to reference Lemberger-Truelove, M. E., Carbonneau, K. J., Zieher, A. K., & Atencio, D. J. (2019). Support for the development and use of the Child Observation of Mindfulness (C-OMM). Mindfulness, 10, 1406–1416.CrossRef Lemberger-Truelove, M. E., Carbonneau, K. J., Zieher, A. K., & Atencio, D. J. (2019). Support for the development and use of the Child Observation of Mindfulness (C-OMM). Mindfulness, 10, 1406–1416.CrossRef
go back to reference Lengua, L. J., Ruberry, E. J., McEntire, C., Klein, M., & Jones, B. (2018). Preliminary evaluation of an innovative, brief parenting program designed to promote self-regulation in parents and children. Mindfulness, 1–12. Advance of Print. Lengua, L. J., Ruberry, E. J., McEntire, C., Klein, M., & Jones, B. (2018). Preliminary evaluation of an innovative, brief parenting program designed to promote self-regulation in parents and children. Mindfulness, 1–12. Advance of Print.
go back to reference Mascaro, J., Negi, L. T., & Raison, C. (2017). Cognitively Based Compassion Training: gleaning generalities from specific biological effects. In E. M. Seppälä, E. Simon-Thomas, S. L. Brown, M. C. Worline, C. D. Cameron, & J. R. Doty (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of compassion science (pp. 247–257). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Mascaro, J., Negi, L. T., & Raison, C. (2017). Cognitively Based Compassion Training: gleaning generalities from specific biological effects. In E. M. Seppälä, E. Simon-Thomas, S. L. Brown, M. C. Worline, C. D. Cameron, & J. R. Doty (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of compassion science (pp. 247–257). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Ozawa-de Silva, B., & Negi, G. L. T. (2013). Cognitively-Based Compassion Training: protocol and key concepts. In T. Singher & M. Bolz (Eds.), Compassion: Bridging Theory and Practice (pp. 416–437). eBook. Ozawa-de Silva, B., & Negi, G. L. T. (2013). Cognitively-Based Compassion Training: protocol and key concepts. In T. Singher & M. Bolz (Eds.), Compassion: Bridging Theory and Practice (pp. 416–437). eBook.
go back to reference Pace, T. W. W., Negi, L. T., Dodson-Lavell, B., Ozawa-de Silva, B., Reddy, S. P. C., Danese, A., Craighead, L. W., & Raison, C. L. (2013). Engagement with Cognitively-Based Compassion Training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein from before to after training in foster care program adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 294–299.CrossRef Pace, T. W. W., Negi, L. T., Dodson-Lavell, B., Ozawa-de Silva, B., Reddy, S. P. C., Danese, A., Craighead, L. W., & Raison, C. L. (2013). Engagement with Cognitively-Based Compassion Training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein from before to after training in foster care program adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 294–299.CrossRef
go back to reference Poehlmann, J., Schwichtenberg, A. J., Bolt, D. M., Hane, A., Burnson, C., & Winters, J. (2011). Infant physiological regulation and maternal risks as predictors of dyadic interaction trajectories in families with a preterm infant. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 91–105. Poehlmann, J., Schwichtenberg, A. J., Bolt, D. M., Hane, A., Burnson, C., & Winters, J. (2011). Infant physiological regulation and maternal risks as predictors of dyadic interaction trajectories in families with a preterm infant. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 91–105.
go back to reference Poehlmann-Tynan, J., Gerstein, E. D., Burnson, C., Weymouth, L., Bolt, D. M., Maleck, S., & Schwichtenberg, A. J. (2015). Risk and resilience in preterm children at age 6. Development and Psychopathology, 27(3), 843–858.CrossRef Poehlmann-Tynan, J., Gerstein, E. D., Burnson, C., Weymouth, L., Bolt, D. M., Maleck, S., & Schwichtenberg, A. J. (2015). Risk and resilience in preterm children at age 6. Development and Psychopathology, 27(3), 843–858.CrossRef
go back to reference Poehlmann-Tynan, J., Engbretson, A., Vigna, A. B., Weymouth, L. A., Burnson, C., Zahn-Waxler, C., et al. (2020). Cognitively-Based Compassion Training for parents reduces cortisol in infants and young children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 41(1), 126–144.CrossRef Poehlmann-Tynan, J., Engbretson, A., Vigna, A. B., Weymouth, L. A., Burnson, C., Zahn-Waxler, C., et al. (2020). Cognitively-Based Compassion Training for parents reduces cortisol in infants and young children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 41(1), 126–144.CrossRef
go back to reference Proulx, J., Croff, R., Oken, B., Aldwin, C. M., Fleming, C., Bergen-Cico, D., Le, T., & Noorani, M. (2018). Considerations for research and development of culturally relevant mindfulness interventions in American minority communities. Mindfulness, 9, 361–370. Proulx, J., Croff, R., Oken, B., Aldwin, C. M., Fleming, C., Bergen-Cico, D., Le, T., & Noorani, M. (2018). Considerations for research and development of culturally relevant mindfulness interventions in American minority communities. Mindfulness, 9, 361–370.
go back to reference Psychogiou, L., Legge, K., Parry, E., Mann, J., Nath, S., Ford, T., & Kuyken, W. (2016). Self-compassion and parenting in mothers and fathers with depression. Mindfulness, 7, 896–908.CrossRef Psychogiou, L., Legge, K., Parry, E., Mann, J., Nath, S., Ford, T., & Kuyken, W. (2016). Self-compassion and parenting in mothers and fathers with depression. Mindfulness, 7, 896–908.CrossRef
go back to reference Raghunathan, T. E., Lepkowski, J. M., van Hoewyk, J., & Solenberger, P. A. (2001). A multivariate technique for multiply imputing missing values using a sequence of regression models. Survey Methodology, 27, 85–95. Raghunathan, T. E., Lepkowski, J. M., van Hoewyk, J., & Solenberger, P. A. (2001). A multivariate technique for multiply imputing missing values using a sequence of regression models. Survey Methodology, 27, 85–95.
go back to reference Roth-Hanania, R., Davidov, M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2011). Empathy development from 8 to 16 months: early signs of concern for others. Infant Behavior & Development, 34(3), 447–458.CrossRef Roth-Hanania, R., Davidov, M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2011). Empathy development from 8 to 16 months: early signs of concern for others. Infant Behavior & Development, 34(3), 447–458.CrossRef
go back to reference Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., & Turner, K. M. T. (2003). Theoretical, scientific, and clinical foundations of the Triple P- Positive Parenting Program: a population approach to the promotion of parenting competence. Parenting Research and Practice Monograph, 1, 1–24. Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., & Turner, K. M. T. (2003). Theoretical, scientific, and clinical foundations of the Triple P- Positive Parenting Program: a population approach to the promotion of parenting competence. Parenting Research and Practice Monograph, 1, 1–24.
go back to reference Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Compare, A., Zangeneh, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Buddhist-derived loving-kindness and compassion meditation for the treatment of psychopathology: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 6, 1161–1180.CrossRef Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Compare, A., Zangeneh, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Buddhist-derived loving-kindness and compassion meditation for the treatment of psychopathology: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 6, 1161–1180.CrossRef
go back to reference Strauss, C., Taylor, B. L., Gu, J., Kuyken, W., Baer, R., Jones, F., & Cavanagh, K. (2016). What is compassion and how can we measure it? A review of definitions and measures. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 15–27.CrossRef Strauss, C., Taylor, B. L., Gu, J., Kuyken, W., Baer, R., Jones, F., & Cavanagh, K. (2016). What is compassion and how can we measure it? A review of definitions and measures. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 15–27.CrossRef
go back to reference Van Buuren, S. (2007). Multiple imputation of discrete and continuous data by fully conditional specification. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 16, 219–242.CrossRef Van Buuren, S. (2007). Multiple imputation of discrete and continuous data by fully conditional specification. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 16, 219–242.CrossRef
go back to reference Zahn-Waxler, C., Robinson, J. L., & Emde, R. N. (1992). The development of empathy in twins. Developmental Psychology, 28(6), 1038–1047.CrossRef Zahn-Waxler, C., Robinson, J. L., & Emde, R. N. (1992). The development of empathy in twins. Developmental Psychology, 28(6), 1038–1047.CrossRef
go back to reference Zahn-Waxler, C., Vigna, A. B., Burnson, C., & Poehlmann, J. (2013). Coding empathic response to simulated distress, revised 06/18/2013. Unpublished document, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Zahn-Waxler, C., Vigna, A. B., Burnson, C., & Poehlmann, J. (2013). Coding empathic response to simulated distress, revised 06/18/2013. Unpublished document, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Metagegevens
Titel
Effects of Cognitively-Based Compassion Training on Parenting Interactions and Children’s Empathy
Auteurs
Ashleigh M. Engbretson
Julie A. Poehlmann-Tynan
Carolyn J. Zahn-Waxler
Abra J. Vigna
Emily D. Gerstein
Charles L. Raison
Publicatiedatum
12-09-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 12/2020
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01495-3

Andere artikelen Uitgave 12/2020

Mindfulness 12/2020 Naar de uitgave