Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

01-02-2023

Development and Validation of an Arabic Version of the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5)

Auteur: Ahmad Kassab Alshayea

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 1/2023

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) is a well-established measure of subjective well-being that has been adapted to and validated in various languages and cultures. This study was set out to psychometrically evaluate an Arabic version of this measure (WHO5-A). A convenience sample of 190 Saudis (59.5% women), with a mean age of 28.97 and a standard deviation of 8.69, were recruited and completed the study measures online. Data were collected and analyzed using correlational and cross-sectional designs. A confirmatory factor analysis CFA revealed a unidimensional latent structure for the WHO5-A, consistent with previous literature. The measure was found to be highly reliable (α = 0.91) and internally homogeneous and associated with convergent and divergent constructs, as hypothesized. Individuals with self-report potential psychiatric issues exhibited significantly lower scores compared to self-reported healthy subjects, which appeared to be due to gender and depression levels. The WHO5-A score was not correlated with age or social desirability bias, whereas significant gender differences were found. In general, findings provided encouraging, although provisional, support for the psychometric suitability of the WHO5-A as a measure of subjective well-being in Saudis.
Literatuur
go back to reference Al-Shanbari, H. H., & Alruwaita, A. S. (2007). The eysenck personality questionnaire-revised: the saudi female version (in Arabic). Risalat at’tarbiah wa eilm an’nafs. (The Message of Education and Psychology), 29, 109–125. Al-Shanbari, H. H., & Alruwaita, A. S. (2007). The eysenck personality questionnaire-revised: the saudi female version (in Arabic). Risalat at’tarbiah wa eilm an’nafs. (The Message of Education and Psychology), 29, 109–125.
go back to reference AlHadi, A. N., AlAteeq, D. A., Al-Sharif, E., Bawazeer, H. M., Alanazi, H., AlShomrani, A. T., & AlOwaybil, R. (2017). An arabic translation, reliability, and validation of patient health questionnaire in a saudi sample. Annals Of General Psychiatry, 16(32), 017–0155. AlHadi, A. N., AlAteeq, D. A., Al-Sharif, E., Bawazeer, H. M., Alanazi, H., AlShomrani, A. T., & AlOwaybil, R. (2017). An arabic translation, reliability, and validation of patient health questionnaire in a saudi sample. Annals Of General Psychiatry, 16(32), 017–0155.
go back to reference Alruwaita. (2009). Collectivism-individualism and the cultural specificity of the saudi society: conservative or critical society? (in Arabic). Riyadh: King Saud University’s College of Education Research Centre. Alruwaita. (2009). Collectivism-individualism and the cultural specificity of the saudi society: conservative or critical society? (in Arabic). Riyadh: King Saud University’s College of Education Research Centre.
go back to reference Alruwaita, A. S., & Al-Shanbari, H. H. (2002). A Saudi version of the eysenck personality questionnaire-revised. Paper presented at the The 10th Annual Meeting of the Saudi Educational and Psychological Association Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Alruwaita, A. S., & Al-Shanbari, H. H. (2002). A Saudi version of the eysenck personality questionnaire-revised. Paper presented at the The 10th Annual Meeting of the Saudi Educational and Psychological Association Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
go back to reference Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
go back to reference Awata, S., Bech, P., Koizumi, Y., Seki, T., Kuriyama, S., Hozawa, A., & Tsuji, I. (2007). Validity and utility of the japanese version of the WHO-five well-being index in the context of detecting suicidal ideation in elderly community residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(1), 77–88.CrossRefPubMed Awata, S., Bech, P., Koizumi, Y., Seki, T., Kuriyama, S., Hozawa, A., & Tsuji, I. (2007). Validity and utility of the japanese version of the WHO-five well-being index in the context of detecting suicidal ideation in elderly community residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(1), 77–88.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Awata, S., Bech, P., Yoshida, S., Hirai, M., Suzuki, S., Yamashita, M., & Oka, Y. (2007). Reliability and validity of the japanese version of the world health organization-five well-being index in the context of detecting depression in diabetic patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 61(1), 112–119.CrossRefPubMed Awata, S., Bech, P., Yoshida, S., Hirai, M., Suzuki, S., Yamashita, M., & Oka, Y. (2007). Reliability and validity of the japanese version of the world health organization-five well-being index in the context of detecting depression in diabetic patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 61(1), 112–119.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Barrigón, M. L., Rico-Romano, A. M., Ruiz-Gomez, M., Delgado-Gomez, D., Barahona, I., Aroca, F., & Baca-García, E. (2017). Comparative study of pencil-and-paper and electronic formats of ghq-12, WHO-5 and PHQ-9 questionnaires.Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition), 10(3),160–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsmen.2017.05.009 Barrigón, M. L., Rico-Romano, A. M., Ruiz-Gomez, M., Delgado-Gomez, D., Barahona, I., Aroca, F., & Baca-García, E. (2017). Comparative study of pencil-and-paper and electronic formats of ghq-12, WHO-5 and PHQ-9 questionnaires.Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition), 10(3),160–167. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​rpsmen.​2017.​05.​009
go back to reference Bech, P., Gudex, C., & Johansen, K. S. (1996). The WHO (ten) well-being index: validation in diabetes. Psychotherapy And Psychosomatics, 65(4), 183–190.CrossRefPubMed Bech, P., Gudex, C., & Johansen, K. S. (1996). The WHO (ten) well-being index: validation in diabetes. Psychotherapy And Psychosomatics, 65(4), 183–190.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chan, L., Liu, R. K. W., Lam, T. P., Chen, J. Y., Tipoe, G. L., & Ganotice, F. A. (2022). Validation of the world health organization well-being index (WHO-5) among medical educators in hong kong: a confirmatory factor analysis. Medical Education Online, 27(1), 2044635.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Chan, L., Liu, R. K. W., Lam, T. P., Chen, J. Y., Tipoe, G. L., & Ganotice, F. A. (2022). Validation of the world health organization well-being index (WHO-5) among medical educators in hong kong: a confirmatory factor analysis. Medical Education Online, 27(1), 2044635.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Do, H. P., Baker, P. R. A., Vo, T. V., Luong-Thanh, B. Y., Nguyen, L. H., Valdebenito, S., & Dunne, M. P. (2021). Brief screening for maternal mental health in vietnam: measures of positive well-being and perceived stress predict prenatal and postnatal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports, 3, 100047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadr.2020.100047.CrossRef Do, H. P., Baker, P. R. A., Vo, T. V., Luong-Thanh, B. Y., Nguyen, L. H., Valdebenito, S., & Dunne, M. P. (2021). Brief screening for maternal mental health in vietnam: measures of positive well-being and perceived stress predict prenatal and postnatal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports, 3, 100047. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jadr.​2020.​100047.CrossRef
go back to reference Eser, E., Çevik, C., Baydur, H., Güneş, S., Esgin, T. A., Öztekin Ç, S., & Özyurt, B. (2019). Reliability and validity of the turkish version of the WHO-5, in adults and older adults for its use in primary care settings.Prim Health Care Res Dev, 1(20). Eser, E., Çevik, C., Baydur, H., Güneş, S., Esgin, T. A., Öztekin Ç, S., & Özyurt, B. (2019). Reliability and validity of the turkish version of the WHO-5, in adults and older adults for its use in primary care settings.Prim Health Care Res Dev, 1(20).
go back to reference Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
go back to reference Fung, S. F., Kong, C. Y. W., Liu, Y. M., Huang, Q., Xiong, Z., Jiang, Z., & Yu, P. (2022). Validity and psychometric evaluation of the chinese version of the 5-item WHO well-being index.Front Public Health, 10(872436). Fung, S. F., Kong, C. Y. W., Liu, Y. M., Huang, Q., Xiong, Z., Jiang, Z., & Yu, P. (2022). Validity and psychometric evaluation of the chinese version of the 5-item WHO well-being index.Front Public Health, 10(872436).
go back to reference Gamez, W., Chmielewski, M., Kotov, R., Ruggero, C., Suzuki, N., & Watson, D. (2014). The brief experiential avoidance questionnaire: development and initial validation. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 35–45.CrossRefPubMed Gamez, W., Chmielewski, M., Kotov, R., Ruggero, C., Suzuki, N., & Watson, D. (2014). The brief experiential avoidance questionnaire: development and initial validation. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 35–45.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gregory, R. (1996). Psychological testing: history, principles, and application (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Gregory, R. (1996). Psychological testing: history, principles, and application (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
go back to reference Hogan, T. P., & Brooke, C. (2007). Psychological testing: a practical introduction (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Hogan, T. P., & Brooke, C. (2007). Psychological testing: a practical introduction (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology (7th ed.). USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology (7th ed.). USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
go back to reference Kong, C. L., Lee, C. C., Ip, Y. C., Chow, L. P., Leung, C. H., & Lam, Y. C. (2016). Validation of the hong kong cantonese version of world health organization five well-being index for people with severe mental illness. East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 26(1), 18–21.PubMed Kong, C. L., Lee, C. C., Ip, Y. C., Chow, L. P., Leung, C. H., & Lam, Y. C. (2016). Validation of the hong kong cantonese version of world health organization five well-being index for people with severe mental illness. East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 26(1), 18–21.PubMed
go back to reference Mueller, R. (1996). Basic principles of structural equation modeling. New York: Springer.CrossRef Mueller, R. (1996). Basic principles of structural equation modeling. New York: Springer.CrossRef
go back to reference Omani-Samani, R., Maroufizadeh, S., Almasi-Hashiani, A., Sepidarkish, M., & Amini, P. (2019). The WHO-5 well-being index: a validation study in people with infertility. Iranian journal of public health, 48(11), 2058–2064.PubMedPubMedCentral Omani-Samani, R., Maroufizadeh, S., Almasi-Hashiani, A., Sepidarkish, M., & Amini, P. (2019). The WHO-5 well-being index: a validation study in people with infertility. Iranian journal of public health, 48(11), 2058–2064.PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Perera, B. P. R., Jayasuriya, R., Caldera, A., & Wickremasinghe, A. R. (2020). Assessing mental well-being in a sinhala speaking sri lankan population: validation of the WHO-5 well-being index. Health And Quality Of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 020–01532.CrossRef Perera, B. P. R., Jayasuriya, R., Caldera, A., & Wickremasinghe, A. R. (2020). Assessing mental well-being in a sinhala speaking sri lankan population: validation of the WHO-5 well-being index. Health And Quality Of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 020–01532.CrossRef
go back to reference Prinz, N., Ebner, S., Grünerbel, A., Henkelüdecke, U., Hermanns, N., Hummel, M., & Holl, R. W. (2017). Female sex, young age, northern german residence, hypoglycemia and disabling diabetes complications are associated with depressed mood in the WHO-5 questionnaire – a multicenter dpv study among 17,563 adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 208, 384–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.077.CrossRefPubMed Prinz, N., Ebner, S., Grünerbel, A., Henkelüdecke, U., Hermanns, N., Hummel, M., & Holl, R. W. (2017). Female sex, young age, northern german residence, hypoglycemia and disabling diabetes complications are associated with depressed mood in the WHO-5 questionnaire – a multicenter dpv study among 17,563 adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 208, 384–391. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jad.​2016.​08.​077.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Saipanish, R., Lotrakul, M., & Sumrithe, S. (2009). Reliability and validity of the thai version of the WHO-five well-being index in primary care patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 63(2), 141–146.CrossRefPubMed Saipanish, R., Lotrakul, M., & Sumrithe, S. (2009). Reliability and validity of the thai version of the WHO-five well-being index in primary care patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 63(2), 141–146.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., & Williams, J. B. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of prime-md: The PHQ primary care study. Primary care evaluation of mental disorders. Patient health questionnaire. [Research Support, Non-U S Gov’t]. Jama, 282(18), 1737–1744. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., & Williams, J. B. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of prime-md: The PHQ primary care study. Primary care evaluation of mental disorders. Patient health questionnaire. [Research Support, Non-U S Gov’t]. Jama, 282(18), 1737–1744.
go back to reference Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the gad-7. Archives Of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.CrossRefPubMed Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the gad-7. Archives Of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Staehr, J. K. (1989). Multicenter continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump feasibility and acceptability study experience. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization. Staehr, J. K. (1989). Multicenter continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump feasibility and acceptability study experience. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization.
go back to reference Suhaimi, A. F., Makki, S. M., Tan, K. A., Silim, U. A., & Ibrahim, N. (2022). Translation and validation of the malay version of the WHO-5 well-being index: Reliability and validity evidence from a sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 19(7). Suhaimi, A. F., Makki, S. M., Tan, K. A., Silim, U. A., & Ibrahim, N. (2022). Translation and validation of the malay version of the WHO-5 well-being index: Reliability and validity evidence from a sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 19(7).
go back to reference Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
go back to reference Tsai, F. Y., Schillok, H., Coenen, M., Merkel, C., Jung-Sievers, C., & On Behalf Of The Cosmo Study. (2022). The well-being of the german adult population measured with the WHO-5 over different phases of the covid-19 pandemic: an analysis within the covid-19 snapshot monitoring study (cosmo). International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(6), https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063236. Tsai, F. Y., Schillok, H., Coenen, M., Merkel, C., Jung-Sievers, C., & On Behalf Of The Cosmo Study. (2022). The well-being of the german adult population measured with the WHO-5 over different phases of the covid-19 pandemic: an analysis within the covid-19 snapshot monitoring study (cosmo). International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(6), https://​doi.​org/​10.​3390/​ijerph19063236.
go back to reference Warr, P., Banks, M., & Ullah, P. (1985). The experience of unemployment among black and white urban teenagers. British Journal Of Psychology, 76(Pt 1), 75–87.CrossRefPubMed Warr, P., Banks, M., & Ullah, P. (1985). The experience of unemployment among black and white urban teenagers. British Journal Of Psychology, 76(Pt 1), 75–87.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMed Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference WHO. (1998). Well-being measures in primary health care/the depcare project: report on a WHO meeting: Stockholm, sweden, 12–13 february 1998. Copenhagen: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. WHO. (1998). Well-being measures in primary health care/the depcare project: report on a WHO meeting: Stockholm, sweden, 12–13 february 1998. Copenhagen: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.
Metagegevens
Titel
Development and Validation of an Arabic Version of the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5)
Auteur
Ahmad Kassab Alshayea
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2023
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 1/2023
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-023-10027-x

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2023

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 1/2023 Naar de uitgave