Skip to main content
Gepubliceerd in:


Determinants of physical activity engagement in older adults

Auteurs: Marta Stojanovic, Ganesh M. Babulal, Denise Head

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Behavioral Medicine | Uitgave 5/2023

Log in om toegang te krijgen

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail


In order to increase engagement in physical activity, it is important to determine which factors contribute to physical activity engagement in older adults. The current study examined the relative predictive ability of several potential determinants, in terms of both the concurrent level as well as longitudinal trajectories. Clinically normal adults aged 61–92 completed the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (n = 189 for cross-sectional models; n = 214 for longitudinal models). Potential determinants included age, gender, education, physical health, sensory health, mood, cardiovascular health, cognitive status, and biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD). We observed a novel finding that both concurrent physical health (p < 0.001) and change in physical health (p < 0.001) were significant predictors above and beyond other determinants. Concurrent mood predicted levels of physical activity (p = 0.035), particularly in females. These findings suggest that poor physical health and low mood might be important to consider as potential barriers to physical activity engagement in older adults.

  1. Barnett, D. W., Barnett, A., Nathan, A., Van Cauwenberg, J., & Cerin, E. (2017). Built environmental correlates of older adults’ total physical activity and walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 14(1), 1–24.View Article
  2. Barnett, I., van Sluijs, E. M., & Ogilvie, D. (2012). Physical activity and transitioning to retirement: a systematic review. American journal of preventive medicine, 43(3), 329–336.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  3. Bauman, A. E., Reis, R. S., Sallis, J. F., Wells, J. C., Loos, R. J., Martin, B. W., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not? The lancet, 380(9838), 258–271.View Article
  4. Bayat, S., Babulal, G. M., Schindler, S. E., Fagan, A. M., Morris, J. C., Mihailidis, A., & Roe, C. M. (2021). GPS driving: a digital biomarker for preclinical Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 13(1), 1-9.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019). Behavioral risk factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  6. Chien, D. T., Bahri, S., Szardenings, A. K., Walsh, J. C., Mu, F., Su, M. Y., & Kolb, H. C. (2013). Early clinical PET imaging results with the novel PHF-tau radioligand [F-18]-T807. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 34(2), 457–468.PubMedView Article
  7. Colcombe, S. J., Erickson, K. I., Scalf, P. E., Kim, J. S., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., & Kramer, A. F. (2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61(11), 1166–1170.PubMedView Article
  8. Collen, F. M., Wade, D. T., & Bradshaw, C. M. (1990). Mobility after stroke: reliability of measures of impairment and disability. International disability studies, 12(1), 6–9.PubMedView Article
  9. Curran, S. L., Andrykowski, M. A., & Studts, J. L. (1995). Short form of the profile of mood states (POMS-SF): psychometric information. Psychological assessment, 7(1), 80.View Article
  10. Daley, A. (2008). Exercise and depression: a review of reviews. Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, 15(2), 140.PubMedView Article
  11. D’Amore, C., Bhatnagar, N., Kirkwood, R., Griffith, L. E., Richardson, J., & Beauchamp, M. (2021). Determinants of physical activity in older adults: an umbrella review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis, 19(10), 2883–2892.PubMedView Article
  12. de Barreto, S., P., & Ferrandez, A. M. (2014). Static or dynamic predictors of physical activity (PA)? A tracking study based on 12-and 38-month follow-ups in older adults. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 59(2), 326–330.View Article
  13. Deng, Y., Chang, L., Yang, M., Huo, M., & Zhou, R. (2016). Gender differences in emotional response: inconsistency between experience and expressivity.PloS one, 11(6), e0158666.
  14. Dohrn, I. M., Gardiner, P. A., Winkler, E., & Welmer, A. K. (2020). Device-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity in older adults differ by demographic and health-related factors. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 17(1), 1–11.View Article
  15. Fagan, A. M., Younkin, L. H., Morris, J. C., Fryer, J. D., Cole, T. G., Younkin, S. G., & Holtzman, D. M. (2000). Differences in the Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio associated with cerebrospinal fluid lipoproteins as a function of apolipoprotein E genotype. Annals of Neurology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 48(2), 201–210.View Article
  16. Frederiksen, K. S., Gjerum, L., Waldemar, G., & Hasselbalch, S. G. (2019). Physical activity as a moderator of Alzheimer pathology: a systematic review of observational studies. Current Alzheimer Research, 16(4), 362–378.PubMedView Article
  17. Gispen, F. E., Chen, D. S., Genther, D. J., & Lin, F. R. (2014). Association between hearing impairment and lower levels of physical activity in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(8), 1427–1433.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  18. Golden, J., Conroy, R. M., Bruce, I., Denihan, A., Greene, E., Kirby, M., & Lawlor, B. A. (2009). Loneliness, social support networks, mood and wellbeing in community-dwelling elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences, 24(7), 694–700.View Article
  19. Gordon, B. A., Blazey, T. M., Christensen, J., Dincer, A., Flores, S., Keefe, S., & Benzinger, T. L. (2019). Tau PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease: relationship with cognition, dementia and other biomarkers. Brain, 142(4), 1063–1076.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  20. Haley, C., & Andel, R. (2010). Correlates of physical activity participation in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity, 18(4), 375–389.PubMedView Article
  21. Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy and research, 36, 427–440.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  22. Hsu, H., Luh, D., Chang, W., & Pan, L. (2012). Joint trajectories of multiple health-related behaviors among the elderly. International Journal of Public Health, 58(1), 109–120.PubMedView Article
  23. Keadle, S. K., McKinnon, R., Graubard, B. I., & Troiano, R. P. (2016). Prevalence and trends in physical activity among older adults in the United States: a comparison across three national surveys. Preventive medicine, 89, 37–43.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  24. Koeneman, M. A., Verheijden, M. W., Chinapaw, M. J., & Hopman-Rock, M. (2011). Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 1–15.View Article
  25. Koyanagi, A., Stubbs, B., & Vancampfort, D. (2018). Correlates of low physical activity across 46 low-and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional analysis of community-based data. Preventive medicine, 106, 107–113.PubMedView Article
  26. Kramer, A. F., Erickson, K. I., & Colcombe, S. J. (2006). Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. Journal of applied physiology, 101(4), 1237–1242.PubMedView Article
  27. Law, L. L., Rol, R. N., Schultz, S. A., Dougherty, R. J., Edwards, D. F., Koscik, R. L., & Okonkwo, O. C. (2018). Moderate intensity physical activity associates with CSF biomarkers in a cohort at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 10(1), 188–195.
  28. Liberman, K., Forti, L. N., Beyer, I., & Bautmans, I. (2017). The effects of exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and the inflammatory profile of older adults: a systematic review. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 20(1), 30–53.PubMedView Article
  29. Lim, K., & Taylor, L. (2005). Factors associated with physical activity among older people—a population-based study. Preventive medicine, 40(1), 33–40.PubMedView Article
  30. Lounassalo, I., Salin, K., Kankaanpää, A., Hirvensalo, M., Palomäki, S., Tolvanen, A., & Tammelin, T. H. (2019). Distinct trajectories of physical activity and related factors during the life course in the general population: a systematic review. Bmc Public Health, 19(1), 1–12.View Article
  31. Mallya, S., & Fiocco, A. J. (2016). Effects of mindfulness training on cognition and well-being in healthy older adults. Mindfulness, 7(2), 453–465.View Article
  32. Marcus, B. H., Forsyth, L. H., Stone, E. J., Dubbert, P. M., McKenzie, T. L., Dunn, A. L., & Blair, S. N. (2000). Physical activity behavior change: issues in adoption and maintenance. Health psychology, 19(1S), 32.PubMedView Article
  33. Mintun, M. A., Larossa, G. N., Sheline, Y. I., Dence, C. S., Lee, S. Y., Mach, R. H., ... & Morris, J. C. (2006). [11C] PIB in a nondemented population: potential antecedent marker of Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 67(3), 446-452.
  34. Morris, J. C., Edland, S., Clark, C., Galasko, D., Koss, E., Mohs, R., & Heyman, A. (1993). The Consortium to establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD): part IV. Rates of cognitive change in the longitudinal assessment of probable Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 43(12), 2457–2457.PubMedView Article
  35. Nguyen, H. Q., Herting, J. R., Kohen, R., Perry, C. K., LaCroix, A., Adams-Campbell, L. L., & Tinker, L. (2013). Recreational physical activity in postmenopausal women is stable over 8 years of follow-up. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10(5), 656–668.PubMedView Article
  36. Notthoff, N., Reisch, P., & Gerstorf, D. (2017). Individual characteristics and physical activity in older adults: a systematic review. Gerontology, 63(5), 443–459.PubMedView Article
  37. Nyström, M. B., Neely, G., Hassmen, P., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Treating major depression with physical activity: a systematic overview with recommendations. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 44(4), 341–352.PubMedView Article
  38. Okonkwo, O. C., Schultz, S. A., Oh, J. M., Larson, J., Edwards, D., Cook, D., & Sager, M. A. (2014). Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD. Neurology, 83(19), 1753–1760.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  39. Pan, L. Y., Hsu, H. C., Chang, W. C., & Luh, D. L. (2015). Trajectories of physical activity and risk factors among taiwanese older adults. International journal of behavioral medicine, 22(1), 62–69.PubMedView Article
  40. Pereira, S. M. P., Geoffroy, M. C., & Power, C. (2014). Depressive symptoms and physical activity during 3 decades in adult life: bidirectional associations in a prospective cohort study. JAMA psychiatry, 71(12), 1373–1380.View Article
  41. Riebe, D., Blissmer, B. J., Greaney, M. L., Garber, E., Lees, C., F. D., & Clark, P. G. (2009). The relationship between obesity, physical activity, and physical function in older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(8), 1159–1178.PubMedView Article
  42. Roe, C. M., Babulal, G. M., Head, D. M., Stout, S. H., Vernon, E. K., Ghoshal, N., ... & Morris, J. C. (2017). Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and longitudinal driving decline. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 3(1), 74-82.
  43. Sabia, S., Dugravot, A., Dartigues, J. F., Abell, J., Elbaz, A., Kivimäki, M., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2017). Physical activity, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia: 28 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study. bmj, 357.
  44. Seney, M. L., & Sibille, E. (2014). Sex differences in mood disorders: perspectives from humans and rodent models. Biology of sex differences, 5(1), 1–10.View Article
  45. Shimada, H., Lord, S. R., Yoshida, H., Kim, H., & Suzuki, T. (2007). Predictors of cessation of regular leisure-time physical activity in community-dwelling elderly people. Gerontology, 53(5), 293–297.PubMedView Article
  46. Smith, L., Gardner, B., Fisher, A., & Hamer, M. (2015). Patterns and correlates of physical activity behaviour over 10 years in older adults: prospective analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.BMJ open, 5(4), e007423.
  47. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group, & Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Jama, 282(18), 1737–1744.PubMedView Article
  48. Su, Y., Blazey, T. M., Snyder, A. Z., Raichle, M. E., Marcus, D. S., & Ances, B. M. (2015). … Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Partial volume correction in quantitative amyloid imaging. Neuroimage, 107, 55–64.
  49. Su, Y., Flores, S., Hornbeck, R. C., Speidel, B., Vlassenko, A. G., Gordon, B. A., & Benzinger, T. L. (2018). Utilizing the centiloid scale in cross-sectional and longitudinal PiB PET studies. NeuroImage: Clinical, 19, 406–416.PubMedView Article
  50. Su, Y., Flores, S., Wang, G., Hornbeck, R. C., Speidel, B., Joseph-Mathurin, N., & Benzinger, T. L. (2019). Comparison of Pittsburgh compound B and florbetapir in cross‐sectional and longitudinal studies. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 11(1), 180–190.
  51. Sunderland, T., Linker, G., Mirza, N., Putnam, K. T., Friedman, D. L., Kimmel, L. H., & Cohen, R. M. (2003). Decreased β-amyloid1-42 and increased tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer disease. Jama, 289(16), 2094–2103.PubMedView Article
  52. van Stralen, M. M., De Vries, H., Mudde, A. N., Bolman, C., & Lechner, L. (2009). Determinants of initiation and maintenance of physical activity among older adults: a literature review. Health Psychology Review, 3(2), 147–207.View Article
  53. Ventry, I. M., & Weinstein, B. E. (1982). The hearing handicap inventory for the elderly: a new tool. Ear and hearing, 3(3), 128–134.PubMedView Article
  54. Xue, Q. L., Bandeen-Roche, K., Mielenz, T. J., Seplaki, C. L., Szanton, S. L., Thorpe, R. J., & Fried, L. P. (2012). Patterns of 12-year change in physical activity levels in community-dwelling older women: can modest levels of physical activity help older women live longer? American journal of epidemiology, 176(6), 534–543.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
  55. Warburton, D. E., Charlesworth, S., Ivey, A., Nettlefold, L., & Bredin, S. S. (2010). A systematic review of the evidence for Canada’s physical activity guidelines for adults. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 7(1), 1–220.View Article
  56. Washburn, R. A., Smith, K. W., Jette, A. M., & Janney, C. A. (1993). The physical activity scale for the Elderly (PASE): development and evaluation. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 46(2), 153–162.PubMedView Article
  57. Washburn, R. A., McAuley, E., Katula, J., Mihalko, S. L., & Boileau, R. A. (1999). The physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE): evidence for validity. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 52(7), 643–651.PubMedView Article
  58. Welten, M., de Kroon, M. L., Renders, C. M., Steyerberg, E. W., Raat, H., Twisk, J. W., & Heymans, M. W. (2018). Repeatedly measured predictors: a comparison of methods for prediction modeling. Diagnostic and prognostic research, 2(1), 1–10.View Article
  59. Weiner, D. K., Haggerty, C. L., Kritchevsky, S. B., Harris, T., Simonsick, E. M., Nevitt, M., & Newman, A. (2003). How does low back pain impact physical function in independent, well-functioning older adults? Evidence from the Health ABC Cohort and implications for the future. Pain Medicine, 4(4), 311–320.PubMedView Article
  60. Wood, B. M., Nicholas, M. K., Blyth, F., Asghari, A., & Gibson, S. (2016). The mediating role of catastrophizing in the relationship between pain intensity and depressed mood in older adults with persistent pain: a longitudinal analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 11(1), 157–162.PubMedView Article
Determinants of physical activity engagement in older adults
Marta Stojanovic
Ganesh M. Babulal
Denise Head
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Behavioral Medicine / Uitgave 5/2023
Print ISSN: 0160-7715
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3521

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2023

Journal of Behavioral Medicine 5/2023 Naar de uitgave