Reitz, E., & Dekovic, M. (2006). The parent-child relationship: who influences who?, Kind en Adolescent, 27 (2), 84-99.
The present study investigates reciprocal relationships between parents and children. On two occasions adolescents between 12 and 15 years old (N = 650) filled out questionnaires about problem behaviour and parenting. Relations between parenting and problem behaviour appeared to be stronger for externalizing than for internalizing problem behaviour. Parenting effects on problem behaviour were found as well as child effects on parenting. Moderator effects showed that previous levels of problem behaviour predicted changes in parenting and that previous levels of parenting predicted changes in problem behaviour one year later. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of incorporating parenting and child effects in future research.