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Gepubliceerd in: Neuropraxis 4/2004

01-08-2004 | Artikelen

De oorzaken van individuele verschillen in stabiliteit en verandering van gedragsproblemen

Auteur: dr. Meike Bartels

Gepubliceerd in: Neuropraxis | Uitgave 4/2004

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Extract

Vijf tot vijftien procent van de Nederlandse kinderen in de leeftijd van 3 tot 12 jaar vertoont milde tot ernstige gedragsproblemen. Waarom vertoont het ene kind meer gedragsproblemen dan het andere? Zijn gedragingen in kinderen puur door de natuur gevormd en zit de sleutel in de genen besloten? Of zijn kinderen ‘maakbaar’ door opvoeding, school, regels en cultuur? Of is het van allebei een beetje? Belangrijker nog: zijn gedragsproblemen stabiel over de tijd? En wat zijn de oorzaken van stabiliteit en verandering voor de mate van gedragsproblemen die een kind vertoont tijdens de kindertijd? Inmiddels weten we dat zowel genen als omgeving van belang zijn bij het verklaren van individuele verschillen in gedrag. Of men nu kijkt naar agressief gedrag, intelligentie of depressiviteit, genen spelen in meer of mindere mate een rol. Voor de meeste fenotypen zijn invloeden uit de omgeving echter ook niet uit te sluiten. Individuele verschillen in aandachtsproblemen worden bijvoorbeeld voor ongeveer 75% verklaard door verschillen in erfelijk materiaal (Rietveld et al., 2003). Individuele verschillen in normafwijkend gedrag worden daarentegen ‘slechts’ voor 30% verklaard door genetische differentiatie. Hierbij spelen invloeden uit de omgeving dan ook een belangrijke rol. Na veelvuldig onderzoek naar de erfelijkheid van gedrag op een bepaalde leeftijd is men inmiddels de weg van het longitudinaal onderzoek in geslagen. …
Voetnoten
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Gedrag van adoptiekinderen wordt vergeleken met gedrag van hun adoptieouders en zo mogelijk met gedrag van hun biologische ouders. Een grote overlap tussen gedrag van het adoptiekind en zijn biologische ouders of een kleine overlap tussen gedrag van het adoptiekind en zijn adoptieouders, wijst op invloed van genetisch materiaal.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
De oorzaken van individuele verschillen in stabiliteit en verandering van gedragsproblemen
Auteur
dr. Meike Bartels
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2004
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Neuropraxis / Uitgave 4/2004
Print ISSN: 1387-5817
Elektronisch ISSN: 1876-5785
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03079009

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