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04-07-2017 | Brief Communication | Uitgave 1/2018

Quality of Life Research 1/2018

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (SMFA)

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 1/2018
Marianne Lindahl, Signe Andersen, Annette Joergensen, Christian Frandsen, Liselotte Jensen, Eirikur Benedikz
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-017-1643-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties.


SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes in the wording in three items were made to adapt to Danish conditions. Acute patients (n = 201) and rehabilitation patients (n = 231) with musculoskeletal problems aged 18–87 years were included. The following analysis were made to evaluate psychometric quality of SMFA-DK: Reliability with Chronbach’s alpha, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated.


Cronbach’s alpha values were between 0.79 and 0.94. SMFA-DK captured all components of the ICF, and there were no floor/ceiling effects. Factor analysis demonstrated four subscales. SMFA-DK correlated good with the SF-36 subscales for the rehabilitation patients and lower for the newly injured patients. Effect sizes were excellent and better for SMFA-DK than for SF-36.


The study indicates that SMFA-DK can be a valid and responsive measure of outcome in rehabilitation settings.

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