Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The present study examined the factor structure of a widely used measure of parenting style in three samples from Northwestern India. College Students (n = 195) completed Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ; Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110–119, 1991), and mothers of children attending high-school (n = 275), and middle-school (n = 145) completed its parent-report version Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R; Reitman et al. in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 24:119–127, 2002). Preliminary findings revealed that across three samples Cronbach’s alpha values ranged from poor to acceptable, with permissive parenting subscale of the PAQ/PAQ-R having the lowest value, whereas the authoritarian parenting had the highest value. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that none of the models achieved satisfactory fit (i.e., CFI > .90). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that a two factor structure (with first component consisting of authoritative and permissive items, and the second component consisting of authoritarian items) rendered Cronbach’s alpha in the acceptable range. Only PAQ/PAQ-R authoritarian scale was correlated with youth adjustment problems across all three samples, while findings concerning authoritative and permissive scales were mixed. The findings suggest that only PAQ/PAQ-R authoritarian scale is reliable and valid in urban, middle-class, educated families in India, and encourage researchers to develop culturally relevant measures of parenting for this population.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (2001). The child behavior checklist for ages 6–18. Burlington, VT: ASEBA, University of Vermont.
Adalbjarnardottir, S., & Hafsteinsson, L. G. (2001). Adolescents’ perceived parenting styles and their substance use: Concurrent and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Research on Adolescence,11, 401–423. CrossRef
Anastassi, A. (1988). Psychological testing (6th ed.). New York: MacMillan.
Anton, W. D., & Reed, J. R. (1991). College Adjustment Scales: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development,37, 887–907. CrossRef
Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph 4(1), pt. 2, 1–102.
Baumrind, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In A. C. Peterson & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), The encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 746–758). New York: Garland.
Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin,88(3), 588–606. CrossRef
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development,4(65), 1111–1119. CrossRef
Chao, R. K. (2000). The parenting of immigrant Chinese and White American mothers: Relations between parenting styles, socialization goals, and parental practices. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,21(2), 233–248. CrossRef
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin,113(3), 487–496. CrossRef
Foster, S. L., & Cone, J. D. (1995). Validity issues in clinical assessment. Psychological Assessment,7, 248–260. CrossRef
Garg, R., Levin, E., Urajnik, D., & Kauppi, C. (2005). Parenting style and academic achievement for East Indian and Canadian adolescents. Journal of Comparative Family Studies,36, 653–661.
Jambunathan, S., & Counselman, K. P. (2002). Parenting attitudes of Asian Indian mothers living in the United States and in India. Early Child Development and Care,172, 657–662. CrossRef
Kim, K. H. (2005). The relation among fit indexes, power, and sample size in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling,12(3), 368–390. CrossRef
Leung, K., Lau, S., & Lam, W. L. (1998). Parenting styles and achievement: A cross-cultural study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly,44, 157–172.
Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.
Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology,52, 1–10. CrossRef
Pong, S. L., Hao, L., & Gardner, E. (2005). The roles of parenting styles and social capital of immigrant Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Social Science Quarterly,86(4), 928–949. CrossRef
Pong, S., Jonhnston, J., & Chen, V. (2010). Authoritarian parenting and Asian adolescent school performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan. International Journal of Behavioral Development,34, 62–72. CrossRef
Rao, N., McHale, J. P., & Pearson, E. (2003). Links between socialization goals and child-rearing practices in Chinese and Indian mothers. Infant and Child Development,12, 475–492. CrossRef
Raval, P., Raval, V. V., Panchal, I., & Chakravorty, T. (2003). Gujarati adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6–18. Poster presented at the 111th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, ON.
Reitman, D., Rhode, P., Hupp, S. D., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,24(2), 119–127. CrossRef
Rose, G. M., Dalakas, V., & Kropp, F. (2003). Consumer socialization and parental style across cultures: Findings from Australia, Greece, and India. Journal of Consumer Psychology,13(4), 366–376. CrossRef
Shek, D. T. L. (1999). Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: A longitudinal study in a Chinese context. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs,125, 27–44. PubMed
Velicer, W. F. (1976). Determining the number of components from the matrix of partial correlations. Psychometrika,41, 321–327. CrossRef
Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Factor influencing five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin,99, 432–442. CrossRef
- Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses of Parental Authority Questionnaire in Urban India
Vaishali V. Raval
Rose Marie Ward
Pratiksha H. Raval
Shwetang S. Trivedi
- Springer US