Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This paper explores the relationship between gender, academic achievement, and family functioning in a Chinese cultural background. Primary and secondary school students (n = 1597) in Hong Kong participated in a survey questionnaire. Two competing hypotheses are derived and empirically tested based on the idea that parents are likely to have higher expectations toward their sons. First, when boys perform well academically, their parents might not feel particularly overjoyed because their sons simply achieved what they were expected to, which would not affect the parents’ attitudes within the family and thus the boys’ perceptions of the family. Second, when parents have such high expectations for their sons, they would feel particularly satisfied when the outcome fulfills their high expectations. The results indicated that boys did well academically to prevent their parents from potential disappointment, whereas parents were actually happier if their daughters overachieve because they have lower initial expectations. Such differences affected parents’ attitudes, family functioning, and thus adolescents’ view of family. The results of this study carry implications for the study of family functioning and parenting among Chinese families. In particular, parents should avoid having gender-based expectations toward their children, which could adversely affect how boys view their family.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Agliata, A. K., & Renk, K. (2009). College students’ affective distress: The role of expectation discrepancies and communication. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 396–411. CrossRef
M. H. Bond (Ed.) (2010). The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bond, M. H., & Hwang, K. -K. (1986). The social psychology of Chinese people. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The Psychology of the Chinese People. New York: Oxford University Press.
M. H. Bornstein, & R. H. Bradley (Eds.) (2003). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Brambor, T., Clark, W. R., & Golder, M. (2006). Understanding interaction models: Improving empirical analyses. Political Analysis, 14, 63–82. CrossRef
Cardon, P. W., & Scott, J. C. (2003). Chinese business face: Communication behaviors and teaching approaches. Business Communication Quarterly, 66, 9–22. CrossRef
Census and Statistics Department. (2012). 2011 population census. Hong Kong: Census and Statistics Department. Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Chang, H. C., & Holt, G. (1994). A Chinese perspective on face as inter-relational concern. In S. Ting-Toomey (Ed.), The challenge of face work: Cross-cultural and interpersonal issues (pp. 95–132). New York: State University of New York Press.
Cheung, C. S., & McBride-Chang, C. (2008). Relations of perceived maternal parenting style, practices, and learning motivation to academic competence in Chinese children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 1–22. CrossRef
Chen, F. M., & Luster, T. (2002). Factors related to parenting practices in Taiwan. Early Child Development and Care, 172, 413–430. CrossRef
Chen, J. J., Chen, T., & Zhang, X. X. (2012). Parenting styles and practices among Chinese immigrant mothers with young children. Early Child Development and Care, 182, 1–21. CrossRef
Chua, A. (2011). Battle hymns of the tiger mother. New York: The Penguin Press.
Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. O. (2012). Criminal recidivism among Hong Kong male juvenile probationers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 857–868. CrossRef
Chui, W. H., & Wong, M. Y. H. (2016). Gender differences in happiness and life satisfaction among adolescents in Hong Kong: relationships and self-concept. Social Indicators Research, 125, 1035–1051. CrossRef
Costigan, C. L., Hua, J. M., & Su, T. F. (2010). Living up to expectations: The strengths and challenges experienced by Chinese Canadian students. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 223–245. CrossRef
Epstein, J. L. (1987). Parent involvement: what research says to administrators. Education and Urban Society, 19, 119–136. CrossRef
Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–22. CrossRef
Ferreira, T., Cadina, J., Matias, M., Vieria, J. M., Leal, T., & Matos, P. M. (2016). Preschool children’s prosocial behavior: The role of mother-child, father-child and teacher-child relationships. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1829–1839. CrossRef
Found, A., & Sam, D. (2013). Gender, sibling position and parental expectations: A study of Chinese college students. Journal of Family Studies, 19, 285–296. CrossRef
Fung, H. (1999). Becoming a moral child: The socialization of shame among young Chinese children. Ethos, 27, 180–209. CrossRef
Guo, K. (2013). Ideals and realities in Chinese immigrant parenting: Tiger mother versus others. Journal of Family Studies, 19, 44–52. CrossRef
Ho, D. Y. F. (1986). Chinese patterns of socialization: A crucial review. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The Psychology of the Chinese People (pp. 1–37). New York: Oxford University Press.
Ho, D. Y. F., & Kang, T. K. (1984). Intergenerational comparisons of child-rearing attitudes and practices in Hong Kong. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1004–1006. CrossRef
Huntsinger, C. S., Huntsinger, P. R., Ching, W. D., & Lee, C. B. (2000). Understanding cultural contexts fosters sensitive care giving of Chinese American children. Young Children, 55, 7–12.
Kam, C. C. -S., & Bond, M. H. (2008). Role of emotions and behavioural responses in mediating the impact of face loss on relationship deterioration: Are Chinese more face-sensitive than Americans? Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 175–184. CrossRef
Kam, C. D., & Franzese, R. J. (2007). Modeling and interpreting interactive hypotheses in regression analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kim, U., & Park, Y. S. (2006). Indigenous psychological analysis of academic achievement in Korea: The influence of self-efficacy, parents, and culture. International Journal of Psychology, 41, 287–292. CrossRef
Lai, J. C. L. (2009). Dispositional optimism buffers the impact of daily hassles on mental health in Chinese adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 247–249. CrossRef
Li, A. K. F. (1970). Parental attitudes, test anxiety, and achievement motivation: A Hong Kong study. Journal of Social Psychology, 93, 3–11. CrossRef
Li, J., & Wang, Q. (2004). Perceptions of achievement and achieving peers in U.S. and Chinese Kindergartens. Social Development, 13, 413–435. CrossRef
Marshall, T. C. (2008). Cultural differences in intimacy: The influence of gender-role ideology and individualism-collectivism. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25, 143–168. CrossRef
Patterson, J. M. (2002). Integrating family resilience and family stress theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 349–360. CrossRef
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
Shek, D. T. L. (2002). Assessment of family functioning in Chinese adolescents: The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument. In N. N. Singh, T. H. Ollendick, & A. N. Singh (Eds.), International Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Vol. 2, pp. 297–316). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Shek, D. T. L., & Ma, C. M. S. (2010). The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses and factorial invariance. Research on Social Work Practice, 20, 112–123. CrossRef
Solomon, R. H. (1971). Mao’s revolution and the Chinese political culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stanard, P., Belgrave, F. Z., Corneille, M. A., Wilson, K. D., & Owens, K. (2010). Promoting academic achievement: The role of peers and family in the academic engagement of African American adolescents. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 38, 198–212. CrossRef
Tang, C. S. (2006). Corporal punishment and physical maltreatment against children: A community study on Chinese parents in Hong Kong. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 893–907. CrossRef
Tomz, M., Wittenberg, J., & King, G. (2003). CLARIFY: Software for interpreting and presenting statistical results. Journal of Statistical Software, 8, 1–30. CrossRef
Xiao, J. J., Tang, C., & Shim, S. (2009). Acting for happiness: Financial behavior and life satisfaction of college students. Social Indicators Research, 92, 53–68. CrossRef
Yang, K. S. (1981). Social orientation and individual modernity among Chinese students in Taiwan. Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 159–170. CrossRef
Yu, W. H., & Su, K. H. (2006). Gender, sibling structure, and educational inequality in Taiwan: Son preference revisited. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 1057–1068.
- Avoiding Disappointment or Fulfilling Expectation: A Study of Gender, Academic Achievement, and Family Functioning among Hong Kong Adolescents
Wing Hong Chui
Mathew Y. H. Wong
- Springer US