Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

29-11-2021 | Original Article

After Experiencing a Tornado: Adolescents’ Longitudinal Trajectories in Posttraumatic Growth and Their Association with Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

Auteurs: Jiaqi Zhao, Yuanyuan An, Xiaohui Li, Jiali Huang

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study investigated the trajectories in posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescents who survived from the Yancheng tornado in China, and explored the effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) on these trajectories. Participants (n = 246) finished 4 assessments at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after the tornado. Growth mixture model and logistic regression were used to examine the heterogeneous trajectories and the role of PTSS for differentiating trajectories respectively. Two latent PTG trajectories were observed: group with decreasing PTG and group with fluctuant PTG, which might stem from the illusory component and the factual component of PTG respectively based on the two-component model; and adolescents with more PTSS had higher probabilities generating decreasing PTG, that is, illusory PTG. This study suggested differentiating PTG trajectories and related influencing factors to improve the post-disaster psychological interventions in a longitudinal perspective.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Kakaki M, Theleritis C, Roussos A (2007) Adolescent health and trauma. Lancet N Am Ed 369(9579):2077 Kakaki M, Theleritis C, Roussos A (2007) Adolescent health and trauma. Lancet N Am Ed 369(9579):2077
2.
go back to reference An Y, Yuan G, Liu Z, Zhou Y, Xu W (2018) Dispositional mindfulness mediates the relationships of parental attachment to posttraumatic stress disorder and academic burnout in adolescents following the Yancheng tornado. Eur J Psychotraumatol 9(1):1472989 PubMedPubMedCentral An Y, Yuan G, Liu Z, Zhou Y, Xu W (2018) Dispositional mindfulness mediates the relationships of parental attachment to posttraumatic stress disorder and academic burnout in adolescents following the Yancheng tornado. Eur J Psychotraumatol 9(1):1472989 PubMedPubMedCentral
3.
go back to reference Lin C, Wu X, Zhang Y, Zang W, Zhou X, Dai Y (2013) Investigation on Mental Health State of Primary and Secondary School students after 30 months of Wenchuan earthquake. Psychol Dev Educ 29(06):631–640 Lin C, Wu X, Zhang Y, Zang W, Zhou X, Dai Y (2013) Investigation on Mental Health State of Primary and Secondary School students after 30 months of Wenchuan earthquake. Psychol Dev Educ 29(06):631–640
4.
go back to reference Alisic E, Van der Schoot TA, Van Ginkel JR, Kleber RJ (2008) Looking beyond posttraumatic stress disorder in children: posttraumatic stress reactions, posttraumatic growth, and quality of life in a general population sample. J Clin Psychiatry 69(9):1455–1461 PubMed Alisic E, Van der Schoot TA, Van Ginkel JR, Kleber RJ (2008) Looking beyond posttraumatic stress disorder in children: posttraumatic stress reactions, posttraumatic growth, and quality of life in a general population sample. J Clin Psychiatry 69(9):1455–1461 PubMed
5.
go back to reference Meyerson DA, Grant KE, Carter JS, Kilmer RP (2011) Posttraumatic growth among children and adolescents: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev 31(6):949–964 PubMed Meyerson DA, Grant KE, Carter JS, Kilmer RP (2011) Posttraumatic growth among children and adolescents: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev 31(6):949–964 PubMed
6.
go back to reference Wu X, Zhou X, Lin C, Chen J (2015) Adolescent’s psychological reactions following traumatic events: influencing mechanism and intervention. Psychol Dev Educ 31(1):117–127 Wu X, Zhou X, Lin C, Chen J (2015) Adolescent’s psychological reactions following traumatic events: influencing mechanism and intervention. Psychol Dev Educ 31(1):117–127
7.
go back to reference An Y, Ding X, Fu F (2017) Personality and post-traumatic growth of adolescents 42 months after the wenchuan earthquake: a mediated model. Front Psychol 8:2152 PubMedPubMedCentral An Y, Ding X, Fu F (2017) Personality and post-traumatic growth of adolescents 42 months after the wenchuan earthquake: a mediated model. Front Psychol 8:2152 PubMedPubMedCentral
8.
go back to reference Zhang Y, Xu W, Yuan G, An Y (2018) The relationship between posttraumatic cognitive change, posttraumatic stress disorder, and posttraumatic growth among Chinese adolescents after the Yancheng Tornado: the mediating effect of rumination. Front Psychol 9:474 PubMedPubMedCentral Zhang Y, Xu W, Yuan G, An Y (2018) The relationship between posttraumatic cognitive change, posttraumatic stress disorder, and posttraumatic growth among Chinese adolescents after the Yancheng Tornado: the mediating effect of rumination. Front Psychol 9:474 PubMedPubMedCentral
9.
go back to reference Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG (2004) Posttraumatic growth: conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychol Inq 15(1):1–18 Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG (2004) Posttraumatic growth: conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychol Inq 15(1):1–18
11.
go back to reference Milam JE, Ritt-Olson A, Unger JB (2004) Posttraumatic growth among adolescents. J Adolesc Res 19(2):192–204 Milam JE, Ritt-Olson A, Unger JB (2004) Posttraumatic growth among adolescents. J Adolesc Res 19(2):192–204
12.
go back to reference An Y, Yuan G, Zhang N, Xu W, Liu Z, Zhou F (2018) Longitudinal cross-lagged relationships between mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Yancheng tornado in China. Psychiatry Res 266:334–340 PubMed An Y, Yuan G, Zhang N, Xu W, Liu Z, Zhou F (2018) Longitudinal cross-lagged relationships between mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Yancheng tornado in China. Psychiatry Res 266:334–340 PubMed
13.
go back to reference Salawali SH, Susanti H, Daulima NHC, Putri AF (2020) Posttraumatic growth in adolescent survivors of earthquake, tsunami, and liquefaction in Palu Indonesia: a phenomenological study. Pediatric Rep 12(S1):34–38 Salawali SH, Susanti H, Daulima NHC, Putri AF (2020) Posttraumatic growth in adolescent survivors of earthquake, tsunami, and liquefaction in Palu Indonesia: a phenomenological study. Pediatric Rep 12(S1):34–38
14.
go back to reference Danhauer SC, Russell G, Case LD, Sohl SJ, Tedeschi RG, Addington EL et al (2015) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and associated characteristics in women with breast cancer. Ann Behav Med 49(5):650–659 PubMed Danhauer SC, Russell G, Case LD, Sohl SJ, Tedeschi RG, Addington EL et al (2015) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and associated characteristics in women with breast cancer. Ann Behav Med 49(5):650–659 PubMed
15.
go back to reference Tsai J, Pietrzak RH (2017) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth among US military veterans: a 4-year nationally representative, prospective cohort study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 136(5):483–492 PubMed Tsai J, Pietrzak RH (2017) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth among US military veterans: a 4-year nationally representative, prospective cohort study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 136(5):483–492 PubMed
16.
go back to reference Zhou X, Zhen R, Wu X (2019) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth among adolescents over time since the Wenchuan earthquake. J Adolesc 74:188–196 PubMed Zhou X, Zhen R, Wu X (2019) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth among adolescents over time since the Wenchuan earthquake. J Adolesc 74:188–196 PubMed
17.
go back to reference Maercker A, Zoellner T (2004) The Janus face of self-perceived growth: toward a two-component model of posttraumatic growth. Psychol Inq 15:41–48 Maercker A, Zoellner T (2004) The Janus face of self-perceived growth: toward a two-component model of posttraumatic growth. Psychol Inq 15:41–48
18.
go back to reference Zoellner T, Maercker A (2006) Posttraumatic growth in clinical psychology. A critical review and introduction of a two component model. Clin Psychol Rev 26:626–653 PubMed Zoellner T, Maercker A (2006) Posttraumatic growth in clinical psychology. A critical review and introduction of a two component model. Clin Psychol Rev 26:626–653 PubMed
19.
go back to reference Calhoun LG, Tedeschi RG (2006) The foundations of posttraumatic growth: an expanded framework. In: Calhoun LG, Tedeschi RG (eds) Handbook of posttraumatic growth. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 1–23 Calhoun LG, Tedeschi RG (2006) The foundations of posttraumatic growth: an expanded framework. In: Calhoun LG, Tedeschi RG (eds) Handbook of posttraumatic growth. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 1–23
20.
go back to reference Zhou X, Wu X, An Y, Chen J (2014) The roles of rumination and social support in the associations between core belief challenge and post-traumatic growth among adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake. Acta Psychol Sin 46(10):1509–1520 Zhou X, Wu X, An Y, Chen J (2014) The roles of rumination and social support in the associations between core belief challenge and post-traumatic growth among adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake. Acta Psychol Sin 46(10):1509–1520
21.
go back to reference Sumalla EC, Ochoa C, Blanco I (2009) Posttraumatic growth in cancer: reality or illusion? Clin Psychol Rev 29(1):24–33 PubMed Sumalla EC, Ochoa C, Blanco I (2009) Posttraumatic growth in cancer: reality or illusion? Clin Psychol Rev 29(1):24–33 PubMed
22.
go back to reference Wagner B, Forstmeier S, Maercker A (2007) Posttraumatic growth as a cognitive process with behavioral components: a commentary on Hobfoll et al. (2007). Appl Psychol 56:407–416 Wagner B, Forstmeier S, Maercker A (2007) Posttraumatic growth as a cognitive process with behavioral components: a commentary on Hobfoll et al. (2007). Appl Psychol 56:407–416
23.
go back to reference Taylor SE (1983) Adjustment to threatening events. A theory of cognitive adaptation. Am Psychol 38:1161–1173 Taylor SE (1983) Adjustment to threatening events. A theory of cognitive adaptation. Am Psychol 38:1161–1173
24.
go back to reference Taylor SE, Armor DA (1996) Positive illusions and coping with adversity. J Pers 64:873–898 PubMed Taylor SE, Armor DA (1996) Positive illusions and coping with adversity. J Pers 64:873–898 PubMed
25.
go back to reference Phipps S, Long AM, Ogden J (2007) Benefit finding scale for children: preliminary findings from a childhood cancer population. J Pediatr Psychol 32:1264–1271 PubMed Phipps S, Long AM, Ogden J (2007) Benefit finding scale for children: preliminary findings from a childhood cancer population. J Pediatr Psychol 32:1264–1271 PubMed
26.
go back to reference Marshall EM, Frazier P, Frankfurt S, Kuijer RG (2015) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and depreciation after two major earthquakes. Psychol Trauma 7(2):112–121 PubMed Marshall EM, Frazier P, Frankfurt S, Kuijer RG (2015) Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and depreciation after two major earthquakes. Psychol Trauma 7(2):112–121 PubMed
27.
go back to reference Wang W, Wu X, Zhou X (2018) Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors after Wenchuan earthquake. J BNU Soc Sci 2:51–63 Wang W, Wu X, Zhou X (2018) Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors after Wenchuan earthquake. J BNU Soc Sci 2:51–63
28.
go back to reference Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG (1996) The posttraumatic growth inventory: measuring the positive legacy of trauma. J Trauma Stress 9(3):455–471 PubMed Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG (1996) The posttraumatic growth inventory: measuring the positive legacy of trauma. J Trauma Stress 9(3):455–471 PubMed
29.
go back to reference Taku K, Calhoun LG, Cann A, Tedeschi RG (2008) The role of rumination in the coexistence of distress and posttraumatic growth among bereaved Japanese university students. Death Stud 32(5):428–444 PubMed Taku K, Calhoun LG, Cann A, Tedeschi RG (2008) The role of rumination in the coexistence of distress and posttraumatic growth among bereaved Japanese university students. Death Stud 32(5):428–444 PubMed
30.
go back to reference Wu X, Zhou X, Wang W, Tian Y (2018) Dialectical understanding posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth: a perspective of integration and comparison. J BNU Soc Sci 2:41–50 Wu X, Zhou X, Wang W, Tian Y (2018) Dialectical understanding posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth: a perspective of integration and comparison. J BNU Soc Sci 2:41–50
31.
go back to reference La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Lai B, Jaccard J (2010) Hurricane-related exposure experiences and stressors, other life events, and social support: concurrent and prospective impact on children’s persistent posttraumatic stress symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol 78(6):794–805 PubMed La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Lai B, Jaccard J (2010) Hurricane-related exposure experiences and stressors, other life events, and social support: concurrent and prospective impact on children’s persistent posttraumatic stress symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol 78(6):794–805 PubMed
32.
go back to reference Fan F, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Mo L, Liu X (2011) Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among adolescents following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. J Trauma Stress 24(1):44–53 PubMed Fan F, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Mo L, Liu X (2011) Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among adolescents following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. J Trauma Stress 24(1):44–53 PubMed
33.
go back to reference Gold JI, Taft CT, Keehn MG, King DW, King LA, Samper RE (2007) PTSD symptom severity and family adjustment among female Vietnam veterans. Milit Psychol 19(2):71–81 Gold JI, Taft CT, Keehn MG, King DW, King LA, Samper RE (2007) PTSD symptom severity and family adjustment among female Vietnam veterans. Milit Psychol 19(2):71–81
34.
go back to reference Silva SM, Moreira HC, Canavarro MC (2012) Examining the links between perceived impact of breast cancer and psychosocial adjustment: the buffering role of posttraumatic growth. Psychooncology 21(4):409–418 PubMed Silva SM, Moreira HC, Canavarro MC (2012) Examining the links between perceived impact of breast cancer and psychosocial adjustment: the buffering role of posttraumatic growth. Psychooncology 21(4):409–418 PubMed
35.
go back to reference Dekel S, Ein-Dor T, Solomon Z (2012) Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress: a longitudinal study. Psychol Trauma 4(1):94–101 Dekel S, Ein-Dor T, Solomon Z (2012) Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress: a longitudinal study. Psychol Trauma 4(1):94–101
36.
go back to reference Lahav Y, Solomon Z, Levin Y (2016) Posttraumatic growth and perceived health: the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Am J Orthopsychiatry 86(6):693–703 PubMed Lahav Y, Solomon Z, Levin Y (2016) Posttraumatic growth and perceived health: the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Am J Orthopsychiatry 86(6):693–703 PubMed
37.
go back to reference Frazier P, Conlon A, Glaser T (2001) Positive and negative life changes following sexual assault. J Consult Clin Psychol 69(6):1048–1055 PubMed Frazier P, Conlon A, Glaser T (2001) Positive and negative life changes following sexual assault. J Consult Clin Psychol 69(6):1048–1055 PubMed
38.
go back to reference Levine SZ, Laufer A, Hamama-Raz Y, Stein E, Solomon Z (2008) Posttraumatic growth in adolescence: examining its components and relationship with PTSD. J Trauma Stress 21(5):492–496 PubMed Levine SZ, Laufer A, Hamama-Raz Y, Stein E, Solomon Z (2008) Posttraumatic growth in adolescence: examining its components and relationship with PTSD. J Trauma Stress 21(5):492–496 PubMed
39.
go back to reference Jin Y, Liu D, Li J (2014) Promoting factors of post-traumatic growth model and intervene. Adv Psychol Sci 22(2):304–313 Jin Y, Liu D, Li J (2014) Promoting factors of post-traumatic growth model and intervene. Adv Psychol Sci 22(2):304–313
40.
go back to reference Schroeder JM, Polusny MA (2004) Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use following a natural disaster. Prehospital Disaster Med 19(01):122–127 PubMed Schroeder JM, Polusny MA (2004) Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use following a natural disaster. Prehospital Disaster Med 19(01):122–127 PubMed
41.
go back to reference Trickey D, Siddaway AP, Meiser-Stedman R, Serpell L, Field AP (2012) A meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Clin Psychol Rev 32(2):122–138 PubMed Trickey D, Siddaway AP, Meiser-Stedman R, Serpell L, Field AP (2012) A meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Clin Psychol Rev 32(2):122–138 PubMed
42.
go back to reference Alisic E, Zalta AK, van Wesel F, Larsen SE, Hafstad GS, Hassanpour K et al (2014) Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 204(05):335–340 PubMed Alisic E, Zalta AK, van Wesel F, Larsen SE, Hafstad GS, Hassanpour K et al (2014) Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 204(05):335–340 PubMed
43.
go back to reference Garrido-Hernansaiz H, Alonso-Tapia J (2017) Associations among resilience, posttraumatic growth, anxiety, and depression and their prediction from stress in newly diagnosed people living with HIV. J Assoc Nurses Aids Care 28(2):289–294 PubMed Garrido-Hernansaiz H, Alonso-Tapia J (2017) Associations among resilience, posttraumatic growth, anxiety, and depression and their prediction from stress in newly diagnosed people living with HIV. J Assoc Nurses Aids Care 28(2):289–294 PubMed
44.
go back to reference Zhou X, An Y, Wu X, Chen H, Long C (2014) Social support mediate the associations between gratitude and post-traumatic growth in middle school students at 3.5 years after Wenchuan earthquake. Psychol Dev Educ 30(1):68–74 Zhou X, An Y, Wu X, Chen H, Long C (2014) Social support mediate the associations between gratitude and post-traumatic growth in middle school students at 3.5 years after Wenchuan earthquake. Psychol Dev Educ 30(1):68–74
45.
go back to reference Wang J, Chen Y, Wang Y, Liu X (2011) Revision of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and testing its reliability and validity. J Nurs Sci 26(14):26–28 Wang J, Chen Y, Wang Y, Liu X (2011) Revision of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and testing its reliability and validity. J Nurs Sci 26(14):26–28
46.
go back to reference Wu X, Zhou X, Wu Y, An Y (2015) The role of rumination in posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescents after the wenchuan earthquake. Front Psychol 6:1335 PubMedPubMedCentral Wu X, Zhou X, Wu Y, An Y (2015) The role of rumination in posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescents after the wenchuan earthquake. Front Psychol 6:1335 PubMedPubMedCentral
47.
go back to reference Foa EB, Johnson KM, Feeny NC, Treadwell KRH (2001) The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: a preliminary examination of its psychometric properties. J Clin Child Psychol 30(3):376–384 PubMed Foa EB, Johnson KM, Feeny NC, Treadwell KRH (2001) The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: a preliminary examination of its psychometric properties. J Clin Child Psychol 30(3):376–384 PubMed
48.
go back to reference Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Chen C (2013) Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among child survivors 1 year following the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Eur Child Adolesc Psych 22(9):567–575 Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Chen C (2013) Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among child survivors 1 year following the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Eur Child Adolesc Psych 22(9):567–575
49.
go back to reference Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Jiang L (2014) Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. PLoS ONE 9(2):e89401 PubMedPubMedCentral Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Jiang L (2014) Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. PLoS ONE 9(2):e89401 PubMedPubMedCentral
50.
go back to reference Wu X, Zhang Y, Lin C, Zang W (2013) The effect of disaster exposure on PTSD of primary and secondary students: mediating and moderating effects. Psychol Dev Educ 29(6):641–648 Wu X, Zhang Y, Lin C, Zang W (2013) The effect of disaster exposure on PTSD of primary and secondary students: mediating and moderating effects. Psychol Dev Educ 29(6):641–648
51.
go back to reference Nylund KL, Asparouhov T, Muthén BO (2007) Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a Monte Carlosimulation study. Struct Equ Modeling 14:535–569 Nylund KL, Asparouhov T, Muthén BO (2007) Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a Monte Carlosimulation study. Struct Equ Modeling 14:535–569
52.
go back to reference Muthén B, Kaplan D, Hollis M (1987) On structural equation modeling with data that are not missing completely at random. Psychometrika 52(3):431–462 Muthén B, Kaplan D, Hollis M (1987) On structural equation modeling with data that are not missing completely at random. Psychometrika 52(3):431–462
53.
go back to reference Enders C, Bandalos D (2001) The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Struct Equ Modeling 8(3):430–457 Enders C, Bandalos D (2001) The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Struct Equ Modeling 8(3):430–457
54.
go back to reference Tsai J, Sippel LM, Mota N, Southwick SM, Pietrzak RH (2016) Longitudinal course of posttraumatic growth among US military veterans: results from the national health and resilience in veterans study. Depress Anxiety 33:9–18 PubMed Tsai J, Sippel LM, Mota N, Southwick SM, Pietrzak RH (2016) Longitudinal course of posttraumatic growth among US military veterans: results from the national health and resilience in veterans study. Depress Anxiety 33:9–18 PubMed
55.
go back to reference Bachem R, Mitreuter S, Levin Y, Stein JY, Xiao Z, Solomon Z (2018) Longitudinal development of primary and secondary posttraumatic growth in aging veterans and their wives: domain-specific trajectories. J Trauma Stress 31(5):730–741 PubMedPubMedCentral Bachem R, Mitreuter S, Levin Y, Stein JY, Xiao Z, Solomon Z (2018) Longitudinal development of primary and secondary posttraumatic growth in aging veterans and their wives: domain-specific trajectories. J Trauma Stress 31(5):730–741 PubMedPubMedCentral
56.
go back to reference Schwarzer R, Luszczynska A, Boehmer S, Taubert S, Knoll N (2006) Changes in benefit finding after cancer surgery and the prediction of well-being one year later. Soc Sci Med 63:1614–1624 PubMed Schwarzer R, Luszczynska A, Boehmer S, Taubert S, Knoll N (2006) Changes in benefit finding after cancer surgery and the prediction of well-being one year later. Soc Sci Med 63:1614–1624 PubMed
57.
go back to reference Zoellner T, Rabe S, Karl A, Maercker A (2008) Posttraumatic growth in accident survivors: openness and optimism as predictors of its constructive or illusory sides. J Clin Psychol 64(3):245–263 PubMed Zoellner T, Rabe S, Karl A, Maercker A (2008) Posttraumatic growth in accident survivors: openness and optimism as predictors of its constructive or illusory sides. J Clin Psychol 64(3):245–263 PubMed
58.
go back to reference Butler LD, Blasey CM, Garlan RW, McCaslin SE, Azarow J, Chen XH et al (2005) Posttraumatic growth following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001: cognitive, coping, and trauma symptom predictors in an internet convenience sample. Traumatol 11(4):247–267 Butler LD, Blasey CM, Garlan RW, McCaslin SE, Azarow J, Chen XH et al (2005) Posttraumatic growth following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001: cognitive, coping, and trauma symptom predictors in an internet convenience sample. Traumatol 11(4):247–267
Metagegevens
Titel
After Experiencing a Tornado: Adolescents’ Longitudinal Trajectories in Posttraumatic Growth and Their Association with Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms
Auteurs
Jiaqi Zhao
Yuanyuan An
Xiaohui Li
Jiali Huang
Publicatiedatum
29-11-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01278-4