Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 2/2020

11-11-2019

Affective and Cognitive Correlates of the Frequency of Using the Verb “to be”: An Empirical Test of E-Prime Theory

Auteurs: Horea-Radu Oltean, Daniel Ovidiu David

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy | Uitgave 2/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The current study aimed to be an empirical test of E-Prime theory regarding its alleged positive effects of eliminating the verb “to be” from speech. Therefore, we investigated the intensity and the direction of the association between the frequency of using the verb “to be” and various psychological outcomes, namely general rational and irrational beliefs, negative functional and dysfunctional emotions, the functionality of inferences, and general psychological distress. 197 participants completed measures of investigated variables. Multiple Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test our hypothesis within a cross-sectional design. The frequency of using the verb “to be” was significantly negatively associated with levels of general rational beliefs, r = − .211, p = .021, and also with levels of preference beliefs, r = − .251, p = .003. This study provides first evidence in favor of E-Prime’s assumption that a less frequent use of the verb “to be” can lead to a less rigid and non-judgmental style of thinking. The elimination of the verb “to be” from speech may prevent dogmatic or rigid thinking, thus stimulating flexibility, and in turn determine the increase of rational beliefs levels, especially the levels of preference beliefs. Possible clinical and scientific implications are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 57, 289–300. Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 57, 289–300.
go back to reference Bond, F. W., & Dryden, W. (2000). How rational beliefs and irrational beliefs affect people’s inferences: An experimental investigation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28(1), 33–43. Bond, F. W., & Dryden, W. (2000). How rational beliefs and irrational beliefs affect people’s inferences: An experimental investigation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28(1), 33–43.
go back to reference Bond, F. W., Dryden, W., & Briscoe, R. (1999). Testing two mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs may affect the functionality of inferences. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72(Pt 4), 557–566. PubMed Bond, F. W., Dryden, W., & Briscoe, R. (1999). Testing two mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs may affect the functionality of inferences. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72(Pt 4), 557–566. PubMed
go back to reference Boroditsky, L. (2011). How language shapes thought. Scientific American, 304(2), 62–65. PubMed Boroditsky, L. (2011). How language shapes thought. Scientific American, 304(2), 62–65. PubMed
go back to reference Bourland, D. (1965). A linguistic note: Writing in E-Prime. General Semantics Bulletin, 32/33, 111–114. Bourland, D. (1965). A linguistic note: Writing in E-Prime. General Semantics Bulletin, 32/33, 111–114.
go back to reference Bourland, D. D. (2004). To be or not to be: E-Prime as a tool for critical thinking. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 61(4), 546–557. Bourland, D. D. (2004). To be or not to be: E-Prime as a tool for critical thinking. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 61(4), 546–557.
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
go back to reference David, D. (2013). E-Prime/R-Prime and emotion regulation in the context of the binary model of distress: An experimental investigation based on the general semantics framework. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(1), 1–11. David, D. (2013). E-Prime/R-Prime and emotion regulation in the context of the binary model of distress: An experimental investigation based on the general semantics framework. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(1), 1–11.
go back to reference DiGiuseppe, R., Leaf, R., Exner, T., & Robin, M. W. (1988). The development of a measure of irrational/rational thinking. World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburgh, Scotland. DiGiuseppe, R., Leaf, R., Exner, T., & Robin, M. W. (1988). The development of a measure of irrational/rational thinking. World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburgh, Scotland.
go back to reference DiGiuseppe, R. A., Doyle, K. A., Dryden, W., & Backx, W. (2014). A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive behavior therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DiGiuseppe, R. A., Doyle, K. A., Dryden, W., & Backx, W. (2014). A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive behavior therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Oxford, England: Lyle Stuart. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Oxford, England: Lyle Stuart.
go back to reference Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Revised and Updated. Secaucus: Carol Publishing Group. Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Revised and Updated. Secaucus: Carol Publishing Group.
go back to reference Ellis, A. (2007). General semantics and rational-emotive therapy: 1991 Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 64(4), 301–319. Ellis, A. (2007). General semantics and rational-emotive therapy: 1991 Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 64(4), 301–319.
go back to reference Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70. Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.
go back to reference Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., Adamson, G., & Boduszek, D. (2014). Modeling the structure of the Attitudes and Belief Scale 2 using CFA and Bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 43(1), 60–71. PubMed Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., Adamson, G., & Boduszek, D. (2014). Modeling the structure of the Attitudes and Belief Scale 2 using CFA and Bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 43(1), 60–71. PubMed
go back to reference Kellogg, E. W., & Bourland, D. D. (1990). Working with E-Prime: Some practical notes. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 47, 376–392. Kellogg, E. W., & Bourland, D. D. (1990). Working with E-Prime: Some practical notes. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 47, 376–392.
go back to reference Korzybski, A. (1933). Science and sanity: An introduction to non-Aristotelian systems and general semantics. Institute of GS. Korzybski, A. (1933). Science and sanity: An introduction to non-Aristotelian systems and general semantics. Institute of GS.
go back to reference Menefee, E. (1991). E-prime or E-choice. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 48, 136–140. Menefee, E. (1991). E-prime or E-choice. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 48, 136–140.
go back to reference Oltean, H. R., & David, D. O. (2015). The effects of using E-Prime/R-Prime language on emotional level in the context of the binary model of distress. Presented at the AREBT Annual Conference, London, UK. Oltean, H. R., & David, D. O. (2015). The effects of using E-Prime/R-Prime language on emotional level in the context of the binary model of distress. Presented at the AREBT Annual Conference, London, UK.
go back to reference Opris, D., & Macavei, B. (2007). The profile of emotional distress; norms for the Romanian population. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 7(2), 139–158. Opris, D., & Macavei, B. (2007). The profile of emotional distress; norms for the Romanian population. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 7(2), 139–158.
go back to reference Walen, S. R., DiGiuseppe, R., & Dryden, W. (1992). A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Walen, S. R., DiGiuseppe, R., & Dryden, W. (1992). A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Affective and Cognitive Correlates of the Frequency of Using the Verb “to be”: An Empirical Test of E-Prime Theory
Auteurs
Horea-Radu Oltean
Daniel Ovidiu David
Publicatiedatum
11-11-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy / Uitgave 2/2020
Print ISSN: 0894-9085
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6563
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00329-z

Andere artikelen Uitgave 2/2020

Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 2/2020 Naar de uitgave