Facilitation of posttraumatic growth (PTG) is an encouraging area of research, yet little is known about the relationship between mindfulness and PTG. While recent studies support the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions with trauma-exposed populations and further findings link mindfulness with a variety of PTG outcomes, how these multidimensional constructs relate remains unclear. As such, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mindfulness, specifically exploring differences between contemplative practitioners and nonpractitioners. Nonpractitioners (n = 248) and practitioners (n = 65) completed self-report measures of mindfulness, PTG, and trauma history online. Canonical correlation analyses indicate that contemplative practitioners reported higher levels of trait mindfulness and PTG as well as a stronger relationship between mindfulness and PTG in comparison with noncontemplative respondents. Results further indicate that the mindfulness dimensions were uniquely associated with PTG across the two groups. In summation, contemplative practitioners and nonpractitioners engaged different elements of mindfulness with respect to PTG and the mindfulness dimensions addressing behavioral regulation and evaluation appeared to be most closely associated with PTG. A hypothesized developmental trajectory in the relationship between mindfulness and PTG is discussed.