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28-07-2020 | Uitgave 12/2020

Quality of Life Research 12/2020

Quality of life and its predictors among aging people in urban and rural Nepal

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 12/2020
Ajay Risal, Sabina Manandhar, Kedar Manandhar, Nirmala Manandhar, Dipak Kunwar, Are Holen
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We studied the quality of life (QoL) of the elderly in Nepal and their special needs. Nepal is a low- and middle-income country where the elderly population is growing significantly.


A random selection of informants from the Kavre district was carried out in this cross-sectional, population-based, door-to-door survey. The district has a mixture of urban and rural communities. In Nepal, families generally take care of their elderly. Hardly any placement is made in institutions. A validated Nepali version of World Health Organization Quality of Life 8-question scale (WHOQoL-8) estimated QoL among the elderly (≥ 60 years; N = 439). Other variables of interest were socio-demographics, substance use, physical and psychological health, and family support. Depression was measured by Geriatric Depression Scale short form [GDS-15]. Due to a high illiteracy rate, a structured and culturally adapted questionnaire was presented in an interview format. The relationships between the variables and QoL were analyzed using independent sample t tests, linear regression and Pearson’s correlations.


The mean QoL score was 25.7 (± 4.2); 49.2% rated their QoL as good. Positive predictors of QoL were: urban residence (p = 0.03); employment (p = 0.02); absence of chronic physical health problems (p = 0.02); absence of depression (p < 0.001); adequate time given by family (p = 0.001), and reports of non-abusive family relationships (p < 0.001). A negative correlation was found between geriatric depression and the QoL score (r = − 0.697; p < 0.001).


QoL of the elderly in Nepal may potentially improve by care directed towards their physical and psychological health, by strengthening family relations, and by financial independence

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