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Although the effects of parenting styles have received much consideration in the research literature, less attention has been given to outcomes in emerging adults. Also, regional differences among areas of the United States may influence parents to use varying degrees of parenting practices such as affection and discipline. The current study investigated the differences in parenting in two geographically close yet distinct regions of the United States and the associated psychological outcomes in emerging adults. The sample was derived from two datasets: one consisting of participants predominantly from Southern states and one predominantly from Florida. The participants reported on maternal and paternal perceived parenting styles and discipline tactics as well as their own internalizing problems. Most notably, authoritative style of both parents shared a direct relationship with authoritarian style in the Southern sample, whereas this was an inverse relationship in the Florida sample. Maternal authoritarian parenting shared a negative relationship with internalizing symptoms in the Mississippi sample, whereas this relationship was positive in the Florida sample. Additionally, paternal permissive parenting shared a negative relationship with internalizing symptoms in the Florida sample, whereas no relationship was found in the Mississippi sample. For both samples, paternal, not maternal, corporal punishment and maternal, not paternal, psychological aggression were related positively to emerging adult internalizing problems. Overall, it was found that both parenting characteristics as well as associated outcomes differed by region, suggesting the need for increased awareness and sensitivity to these differences.
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- Parenting and Emerging Adult Internalizing Problems: Regional Differences Suggest Southern Parenting Factor
Kimberly R. Brown
- Springer US