Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander hoofdstuk

2019 | OriginalPaper | Hoofdstuk

9. Paediatric and adolescent gynaecology

Auteurs : Dr Sabine E. Hannema, Dr Marianne J. ten Kate-Booij

Gepubliceerd in: Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Uitgeverij: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum

share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Summary

At birth atypical genitalia may indicate a disorder/difference of sex development, requiring referral to a specialized team. The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis is transiently activated after birth (minipuberty) and becomes quiescent during childhood. At this age vulvar itching and vaginal discharge are the most common gynaecological complaints. Puberty normally starts between age 8–13 years but can be precocious, delayed, absent or its course may be abnormal. In precocious puberty underlying central nervous system disorders should be ruled out. Absent or delayed puberty may be caused by hypogonadotropic or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Primary amenorrhoea may be present in these conditions but can also result from absence of a uterus and/or vagina or outflow tract obstruction. Children and adolescents may present with gender dysphoria which requires evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. In situations where future fertility may be affected, individuals should be counselled on fertility preservation options. Transition to adult services deserves careful preparation.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Woordenlijst
Minipuberty
Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in the first months of life
Thelarche
The onset of breast development
Menarche
The first spontaneous menstrual bleeding
Puberty
Period in which transition from childhood to adulthood and biological changes that lead to reproductive capacity take place.
Pubarche
The appearance of pubic and/or axillary hair
Gonadarche
Pubertal reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
Adrenarche
(Re)activation of the adrenal zona reticularis to produce androgens
Disorder/difference of sex development (DSD)
Congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical
Ambiguous genitalia
Genitalia that are neither typically female nor typically male
Central precocious puberty
Onset of breast development before age 8 years due to premature activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis
Delayed puberty
The absence of breast development by age 13 years
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Reduced gonadal sex steroid production due to insufficient secretion of GnRH and/or gonadotropins
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism
Reduced gonadal sex steroid production due to an impaired response to gonadotropins
Constitutional delay of growth and puberty
Late but spontaneous puberty before age 18 years, often familial
Primary amenorrhoea
Failure to reach menarche by age 16 years or within five years after the onset of breast development
Haematocolpos
Menstruation blood accumulates in the vagina above the imperforate hymen
Haematometra/haematosalpinx
Menstruation blood accumulates in the uterus/fallopian tubes
Gender identity
One’s internal, deeply held sense of one’s gender
Gender dysphoria
The distress and unease experienced if gender identity and sex assigned at birth are not completely congruent
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Adams JA. Medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse: 2011 update. J Child Sex Abus. 2011;20(5):588–605. CrossRef Adams JA. Medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse: 2011 update. J Child Sex Abus. 2011;20(5):588–605. CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Boehm U, Bouloux P-M, Dattani MT, et al. European consensus statement on congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism – pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015;11:547–64. CrossRef Boehm U, Bouloux P-M, Dattani MT, et al. European consensus statement on congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism – pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015;11:547–64. CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Brook CGD, Brown RS. Handbook of clinical pediatric endocrinology. 1st ed. Malden, Massachusetts, USA: Blackwell Publishing; 2008. Brook CGD, Brown RS. Handbook of clinical pediatric endocrinology. 1st ed. Malden, Massachusetts, USA: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
4.
go back to reference Emans SJ, Laufer MR. Emans, Laufer, Goldstein’s pediatric & adolescent gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkens; 2011. Emans SJ, Laufer MR. Emans, Laufer, Goldstein’s pediatric & adolescent gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkens; 2011.
5.
go back to reference European Practice in Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Ed. by Elsevier; 2003. ISBN 0444513604. European Practice in Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Ed. by Elsevier; 2003. ISBN 0444513604.
6.
go back to reference Lammes FB. Gynpictures. Haarlem, The Netherlands: DCHG Medische uitgeverij; 2007. ISBN 978-90-811646-2-7. Lammes FB. Gynpictures. Haarlem, The Netherlands: DCHG Medische uitgeverij; 2007. ISBN 978-90-811646-2-7.
7.
go back to reference Lammes FB. Kindergynaecologie. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum; 1992. ISBN 90-313-1411-0. Lammes FB. Kindergynaecologie. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum; 1992. ISBN 90-313-1411-0.
8.
go back to reference Parent A-S, Franssen D, Fudvoye J, Gérard A, Bourguignon J-P. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2015;38:12–36. CrossRef Parent A-S, Franssen D, Fudvoye J, Gérard A, Bourguignon J-P. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2015;38:12–36. CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Sugar NF, Graham EA. Common gynecologic problems in prepubertal girls. Pediatr Rev. 2006;27(6):213–23. CrossRef Sugar NF, Graham EA. Common gynecologic problems in prepubertal girls. Pediatr Rev. 2006;27(6):213–23. CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Walvoord EC. The timing of puberty: is it changing? Does it matter? J Adol Health 2010;433–39. CrossRef Walvoord EC. The timing of puberty: is it changing? Does it matter? J Adol Health 2010;433–39. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Paediatric and adolescent gynaecology
Auteurs
Dr Sabine E. Hannema
Dr Marianne J. ten Kate-Booij
Copyright
2019
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-368-2131-5_9