Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The present study investigated how both mindfulness and managerial autonomy support affect work adjustment. Two hundred and fifty-nine working adults were recruited online, and they were assessed for individual differences in mindfulness and the autonomy-supportive versus controlling style of their management at work. Also assessed were indicators of work-related adjustment, namely, burnout, turnover intention, and absenteeism. Results showed that both autonomy support and mindfulness had direct relations with employee work well-being. Less autonomy-supportive work climates thwarted employee’s basic psychological needs at work, which partially explained the association of lower autonomy support at work and decreased work adjustment. These indirect effects were moderated by mindfulness. Specifically, people higher in mindfulness were less likely to feel need frustration, even in unsupportive managerial environments. Mindfulness thus appears to act as a protective factor in controlling work environments. These results not only highlight mindfulness as a potential pathway to wellness at the workplace, but also speak to the relevance of autonomy support in work environments in promoting employee work well-being.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Akerstedt, T. (2004). Sleep—Gender, age, stress, work hours. In WHO technical meeting on sleep and health (pp. 156–180). Bonn: World Health Organization.
Allen, T. D., & Kiburz, K. M. (2012). Trait mindfulness and work–family balance among working parents: the mediating effects of vitality and sleep quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 372–379. CrossRef
American Psychological Association. (2009). Stress in America 2009. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress-exec-summary.pdf
Arbuckle, J. (2010). IBM SPSS AMOS 19 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Smallwaters Corp.
Arbuckle, J., & Wothke, W. (1999). AMOS 4 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Smallwaters Corp.
Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: a motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 2045–2068. CrossRef
Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.
Baer, R. A. (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
Barajas, S., & Garra, L. (2014). Mindfulness and psychopathology: adaptation of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in a Spanish sample. Clínica y Salud, 25, 49–56. CrossRef
Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 193–216.
Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011b). Self-determination theory and the darker side of athletic experience: the role of interpersonal control and need thwarting. Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 7, 23–27.
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.
Bowlin, S. L., & Baer, R. A. (2012). Relationships between mindfulness, self-control, and psychological functioning. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 411–415. CrossRef
Brown, K. W., & Kasser, T. (2005). Are psychological and ecological well-being compatible? The role of values, mindfulness, and lifestyle. Social Indicators Research, 74, 349–368. CrossRef
Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 1–26. CrossRef
Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., & Konow, J. (2008). Materialism, acquisition, and unpleasant affect. Unpublished manuscript, Virginia Commonwealth University
Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Linley, P. A., & Orzech, K. (2009). When what one has is enough: mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 727–736. CrossRef
Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., Loverich, T. M., Biegel, G. M., & West, A. M. (2011). Out of the armchair and into the streets: measuring mindfulness advances knowledge and improves interventions: Reply to Grossman (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23, 1041–1046. CrossRef
Browne, K. E. (2000). Work style and network management: gendered patterns and economic consequences in Martinique. Gender & Society, 14, 435–456. CrossRef
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Beverly Hills: Sage.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2001). Number and percent distribution of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work by nature of injury or illness and number of days away from work, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/case/ostb1222.pdf
Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D. J., & Klesh, J. R. (1983). Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizational members. In S. E. Seashore, E. E. I. Lawler, P. H. Mirvis, & C. Cammann (Eds.), Assessing organizational change: a guide to methods, measures and practices (pp. 71–138). New York: Wiley.
Chen, X., Hui, C., & Sego, D. J. (1998). The role of organizational citizenship behavior in turnover: conceptualization and preliminary tests of key hypotheses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 922–931. CrossRef
Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Boone, L., Deci, E. L., Deeder, J., … Verstuyf, J. (2013). Psychological need satisfaction and desire for need satisfaction across four cultures. Manuscript in preparation.
Coffey, K. A., & Hartman, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13, 79–91.
Colarelli, S. M. (1984). Methods of communication and mediating processes in realistic job previews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 694, 633–642. CrossRef
Constantino, P., de Souza, E. R., de Assis, S. G., & Correia, B. S. C. (2013). Burnout aspects of physical and mental health conditions. In S. Bahrer-Kohler (Ed.), Burnout for experts: prevention in the context of living and working (pp. 89–98). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18, 621–656.
Dane, E. (2011). Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management, 37, 997–1018. CrossRef
Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2013). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations, 67, 105–128. CrossRef
de Charms, R. (1968). Personal causation. New York: Academic Press.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. CrossRef
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49, 14–23. CrossRef
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: an overview of self-determination theory. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 85–107). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagne, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former eastern bloc country: a cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930–942. CrossRef
DeFrank, R. S., & Cooper, C. L. (1987). Worksite stress management interventions: their effectiveness and conceptualizations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 2, 4–10. CrossRef
Desbordes, G., Gard, T., Hoge, E. A., Holzel, B. K., Kerr, C., Lazar, S. W., et al. (in press). Moving beyond mindfulness: defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness.
Dimidjian, S., & Linehan, M. M. (2003). Defining an agenda for future research on the clinical application of mindfulness practice. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 166–171.
Escuriex, B. F., & Labbe, E. E. (2011). Health care providers’ mindfulness and treatment outcomes: a critical review of the research literature. Mindfulness, 2, 242–253. CrossRef
Follette, V., Palm, K. M., & Pearson, A. N. (2006). Mindfulness and trauma: implications for treatment. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 24, 45–61. CrossRef
Frewen, P. A., Dozois, D. J. A., Neufeld, R. W. J., Lane, R. D., Densmore, M., Stevens, T. K., et al. (2010). Individual differences in trait mindfulness predict dorsomedial prefrontal and amygdala response during emotional imagery: an fMRI study. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 479–484. CrossRef
Gagne, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331–362. CrossRef
Gagne, M., Senecal, C., & Koestner, R. (1997). Proximal job characteristics, feelings of empowerment, and intrinsic motivation: a multidimensional model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1222–1240. CrossRef
Gagne, M., Koestner, R., & Zuckerman, M. (2000). Facilitating acceptance of organizational change: the importance of self-determination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1843–1852. CrossRef
Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive effects of mindfulness: an upward spiral process. Mindfulness, 2, 59–67. CrossRef
Gelles, D. (2012). The Mind Business. Financial Times. http://www.ft.com. Accessed May 22, 2013.
Glomb, T. M., Duffy, M. K., Bono, J. E., & Yang, T. (2011). Mindfulness at work. In J. Martocchio, H. Liao, & A. Joshi (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management (pp. 115–157). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. CrossRef
Granrose, C. S., & Kaplan, E. (1994). Returning to work following childbirth: the relationship between intentions and behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 873–896. CrossRef
Grawitch, M. J., Gottschalk, M., & Munz, D. C. (2006). The path to a healthy workplace: a critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58, 129–147. CrossRef
Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Burnout in organizational life. Journal of Management, 30, 859–879.
Hansen, D. (2012). A Guide to Mindfulness at Work. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com. Accessed May 22, 2013.
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2003). Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: a review of the Gallup studies. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 205–224). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (2003). Mindfulness: method and process. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 161–165.
Honaker, J., King, G., & Blackwell, M. (2011). Amelia II: a program for missing data. Journal of Statistical Software, 45, 1–47. CrossRef
Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., & Buro, K. (2010). Mindfulness predicts sleep-related self-regulation and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 419–424. CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789–1805. CrossRef
Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., Bell, I., et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 11–21. PubMedCrossRef
Jasmin, K., & Casasanto, D. (2012). The QWERTY effect: how typing shapes the meanings of words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 499–504. CrossRef
Johns, G. (1994). Absenteeism estimates by employees and managers: divergent perspectives and self-serving perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 229–239. CrossRef
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.
Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2006). A multi-component conceptualization of authenticity: theory and research. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 38, pp. 284–357). San Diego: Academic Press.
Kerr, C. E., Josyula, K., & Littenberg, R. (2011). Developing an observing attitude: an analysis of meditation diaries in an MBSR clinical trial. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18, 80–93. CrossRef
Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S. C., Jonas, K., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Van Dick, R. (2012). How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self-determination-based analysis of employees’ needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 1031–1052. CrossRef
Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., et al. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 302, 1284–1293. PubMedCrossRef
Leary, M. R., & Tate, E. B. (2007). The multi-faceted nature of mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 251–255. CrossRef
Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Dimitrova, N. G., & Sels, L. (2013). Mindfulness, authentic functioning, and work engagement: a growth modeling approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 18, 238–247. CrossRef
Levesque, C., & Brown, K. W. (2007). Mindfulness as a moderator of the effect of implicit motivational self-concept on day-to-day behavioral motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 284–299. CrossRef
Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202. CrossRef
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Murphy, L. R., & Sauter, S. L. (2003). The USA perspective: current issues and trends in the management of work stress. Australian Psychologist, 38, 151–157. CrossRef
Niemiec, C. P., Brown, K. W., Kashdan, T. B., Cozzolino, P. J., Breen, W. E., Levesque-Bristol, C., et al. (2010). Being present in the face of existential threat: the role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 344–365. PubMedCrossRef
Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 411–419.
Parfyonova, N. (2009). Employee motivation, performance, and well-being: the role of managerial support for autonomy, competence and relatedness needs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, The University of Western Ontario.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448. CrossRef
Ramel, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E., & McQuaid, J. R. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 433–455. CrossRef
Richer, S. F., Blanchard, C., & Vallerand, R. J. (2002). A motivational model of work turnover. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 2089–2113. CrossRef
Rosch, P. J. (2001). The quandary of job stress compensation. Health and Stress, 3, 1–4.
Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: Wiley. CrossRef
Ryan, R. M., & Rigby, C. S. (2014). Did the Buddha have a self? No-self, self and mindfulness in Buddhist thought and western psychologies. In K. W. Brown, R. M. Ryan, & J. D. Creswell (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness. New York: Guilford Press.
Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. London: Chapman & Hall. CrossRef
Schafer, J. L. (1999). NORM: multiple imputation of incomplete multivariate data under a normal model, version 2. Software for Windows 95/98/NT, available from http:/ / www.stat.psu.edu/-jls/misoftwa.html.
Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Past performance and future perspectives of burnout research. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29, 1–15.
Schultz, P. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). The “why”, “what”, and “how” of healthy self-regulation: mindfulness and well-being from a self-determination theory perspective. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation. New York: Springer.
Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2009). The art and science of mindfulness: integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Shapiro S., Anderson N., Carlson L., Segal Z.V., Abbey S., Speca M., … Devins G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241
Shapiro, D. N., Chandler, J., & Mueller, P. A. (2013). Using Mechanical Turk to study clinical populations. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 213–220. CrossRef
Spector, P. E. (1987). Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: myth or significant problem? Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 438–443. CrossRef
Stebbings, J., Taylor, I., Spray, C., & Ntoumanis, N. (2012). Antecedents of perceived coach interpersonal behaviors: the coaching environment and coach psychological well- and ill-being. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 481–502.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259–293. CrossRef
Treadway, M. T., & Lazar, S. W. (2009). The neurobiology of mindfulness. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness (pp. 45–57). New York: Springer. CrossRef
U. S. Department of Labor. (1999). Report on the American workforce. Washington, DC
Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Koestner, R. (2008). Reflections on self-determination theory. Canadian Psychology, 49, 257–262. CrossRef
Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: the role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work and Stress, 22, 277–294. CrossRef
Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (in press). On psychological growth and vulnerability: basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration.
Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Luyckx, K. (2006). Autonomy and relatedness among Chinese sojourners and applicants: conflictual or independent predictors of well-being and adjustment? Motivation and Emotion, 30, 273–282. CrossRef
Weber, A., & Jaekel-Reinhard, A. (2000). Burnout syndrome: a disease of modern societies? Occupational Medicine (London), 50, 512–517. CrossRef
Weinstein, N., Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). A multi-method examination of the effects of mindfulness on stress attribution, coping, and emotional well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 374–385. CrossRef
Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). The index of autonomous functioning: development of a scale of human autonomy. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 397–413. CrossRef
- Mindfulness, Work Climate, and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Employee Well-being
Patricia P. Schultz
Richard M. Ryan
Christopher P. Niemiec
Geoffrey C. Williams
- Springer US