Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 2/2018

29-08-2017 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Mindfulness Training, Yoga, or Both? Dismantling the Active Components of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Intervention

Auteurs: Melissa Hunt, Farah Al-Braiki, Shannon Dailey, Rachel Russell, Krystyna Simon

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 2/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can help college students cope effectively with stress, reducing negative affect in the short term and resulting in higher (more adaptive) heart rate variability (HRV). However, HRV is a measure of cardiovascular fitness, as well as parasympathetic control of the stress response. MBSR is a multicomponent intervention and it is unclear to what extent movement, including gentle yoga, mindfulness training, or the synergy between the two, has an impact on emotional and physiological outcomes. The current study dismantled yoga and explicit mindfulness training in a brief stress reduction intervention in college students. Participants were randomly assigned to either mindfulness training and meditation alone (no movement); yoga alone (no explicit mindfulness training); combined yoga and mindfulness training and meditation; an active placebo control consisting of study breaks with party games, access to a therapy dog, and healthful snacks; or a no-treatment control. All active treatments resulted in decreases in anxiety and dysphoria over the 4 weeks of treatment relative to the no-treatment control, although by week 4, only the combined and yoga groups were significantly different from the control group on both measures. The no-treatment control group showed the lowest HRV at rest and during the challenge. The combined and yoga groups showed the highest HRV at rest, followed by moderate declines in HRV during the challenge, suggesting adaptive vagal withdrawal. The mindfulness training alone group was the only group to show no decrease in HRV during the challenge, suggesting that they were the least stressed by the challenge.
Literatuur
go back to reference Abousiere, R. (1994). Sources and levels of stress in relation to locus of control and self esteem in university students. Educational Psychology, 14(3), 323–330. CrossRef Abousiere, R. (1994). Sources and levels of stress in relation to locus of control and self esteem in university students. Educational Psychology, 14(3), 323–330. CrossRef
go back to reference American College Health Association. (2008). National college health assessment spring 2007 reference group data report (abridged). Journal of American College Health, 56(5), 469–479. CrossRef American College Health Association. (2008). National college health assessment spring 2007 reference group data report (abridged). Journal of American College Health, 56(5), 469–479. CrossRef
go back to reference Appelhans, B. M., & Luecken, L. J. (2006). Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding. Review of General Psychology, 10, 229–240. CrossRef Appelhans, B. M., & Luecken, L. J. (2006). Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding. Review of General Psychology, 10, 229–240. CrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8(1), 77–100. CrossRef Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8(1), 77–100. CrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, Harcourt, Brace. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, Harcourt, Brace.
go back to reference Brougham, R. R., Zail, C. M., Mendoza, C. M., & Miller, J. R. (2009). Stress, sex differences, and coping strategies among college students. Current Psychology, 28, 85–97. CrossRef Brougham, R. R., Zail, C. M., Mendoza, C. M., & Miller, J. R. (2009). Stress, sex differences, and coping strategies among college students. Current Psychology, 28, 85–97. CrossRef
go back to reference Burg, J. M., Wolf, O. T., & Michalak, J. (2012). Mindfulness as self-regulated attention. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71, 135–139. Burg, J. M., Wolf, O. T., & Michalak, J. (2012). Mindfulness as self-regulated attention. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71, 135–139.
go back to reference Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5), 593–600. CrossRefPubMed Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5), 593–600. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Deckro, G. R., Ballinger, K. M., Hoyt, M., Wilcher, M., Dusek, J., Myers, P., et al. (2002). The evaluation of a mind/body intervention to reduce psychological distress and perceived stress in college students. Journal of American College Health, 50(6), 281–287. CrossRefPubMed Deckro, G. R., Ballinger, K. M., Hoyt, M., Wilcher, M., Dusek, J., Myers, P., et al. (2002). The evaluation of a mind/body intervention to reduce psychological distress and perceived stress in college students. Journal of American College Health, 50(6), 281–287. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dishman, R. K., Nakamura, Y., Garcia, M. E., Thompson, R. W., Dunn, A. L., & Blair, S. N. (2000). Heart rate variability, trait anxiety, and perceived stress among physically fit men and women. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 37(2), 121–133. CrossRefPubMed Dishman, R. K., Nakamura, Y., Garcia, M. E., Thompson, R. W., Dunn, A. L., & Blair, S. N. (2000). Heart rate variability, trait anxiety, and perceived stress among physically fit men and women. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 37(2), 121–133. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189. CrossRef Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189. CrossRef
go back to reference Gallegos, A. M., Hoerger, M., Talbot, N. L., Krasner, M. S., Knight, J. M., Moynihan, J. A., & Duberstein, P. R. (2013). Toward identifying the effects of the specific components of mindfulness-based stress reduction on biologic and emotional outcomes among older adults. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(10), 787–792. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Gallegos, A. M., Hoerger, M., Talbot, N. L., Krasner, M. S., Knight, J. M., Moynihan, J. A., & Duberstein, P. R. (2013). Toward identifying the effects of the specific components of mindfulness-based stress reduction on biologic and emotional outcomes among older adults. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(10), 787–792. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Graziano, P., & Derefinko, K. (2013). Cardiac vagal control and children’s adaptive functioning: a meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 94(1), 22–37. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Graziano, P., & Derefinko, K. (2013). Cardiac vagal control and children’s adaptive functioning: a meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 94(1), 22–37. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hudd, S. S., Dumlao, J., Erdmann-Sager, D., Murray, D., Phan, E., Soukas, N., & Yokozuka, N. (2000). Stress at college: effects on health habits, health status and self-esteem. College Student Journal, 34(2), 217–228. Hudd, S. S., Dumlao, J., Erdmann-Sager, D., Murray, D., Phan, E., Soukas, N., & Yokozuka, N. (2000). Stress at college: effects on health habits, health status and self-esteem. College Student Journal, 34(2), 217–228.
go back to reference Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 11–21. CrossRefPubMed Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 11–21. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J., & Hanh, T. N. (2009). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delta. Kabat-Zinn, J., & Hanh, T. N. (2009). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delta.
go back to reference Kadison, R., & DiGeronimo, T. F. (2004). College of the overwhelmed: the campus mental health crisis and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kadison, R., & DiGeronimo, T. F. (2004). College of the overwhelmed: the campus mental health crisis and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
go back to reference Kase, C., Rivera, N., & Hunt, M. (2016). The psychological effects of sorority recruitment: a question of self-selection. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 11(1), 1–16. Kase, C., Rivera, N., & Hunt, M. (2016). The psychological effects of sorority recruitment: a question of self-selection. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 11(1), 1–16.
go back to reference Krygier, J. R., Heathers, J. A., Shahrestani, S., Abbott, M., Gross, J. J., & Kemp, A. H. (2013). Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: a preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive Vipassana meditation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89(3), 305–313. CrossRefPubMed Krygier, J. R., Heathers, J. A., Shahrestani, S., Abbott, M., Gross, J. J., & Kemp, A. H. (2013). Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: a preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive Vipassana meditation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89(3), 305–313. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Marcovitch, S., Leigh, J., Calkins, S. D., Leerks, E. M., O’Brien, M., & Blankson, A. N. (2010). Moderate vagal withdrawal in 3.5-year-old children is associated with optimal performance on executive function tasks. Developmental Psychobiology, 52(6), 603–608. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Marcovitch, S., Leigh, J., Calkins, S. D., Leerks, E. M., O’Brien, M., & Blankson, A. N. (2010). Moderate vagal withdrawal in 3.5-year-old children is associated with optimal performance on executive function tasks. Developmental Psychobiology, 52(6), 603–608. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2000). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16(1), 41–51. Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2000). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16(1), 41–51.
go back to reference Nunan, D., Sandercock, G. R., & Brodie, D. A. (2010). A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 33(11), 1407–1417. CrossRefPubMed Nunan, D., Sandercock, G. R., & Brodie, D. A. (2010). A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 33(11), 1407–1417. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pal, G. K. (2015). Yoga and heart rate variability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, 2(1), 2. CrossRef Pal, G. K. (2015). Yoga and heart rate variability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, 2(1), 2. CrossRef
go back to reference Pritchard, M. E., Wilson, G. S., & Yamnitz, B. (2007). What predicts adjustment among college students? A longitudinal panel study. Journal of American College Health, 56(1), 15–22. CrossRefPubMed Pritchard, M. E., Wilson, G. S., & Yamnitz, B. (2007). What predicts adjustment among college students? A longitudinal panel study. Journal of American College Health, 56(1), 15–22. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., & Hojat, M. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction lowers psychological distress in medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 15(2), 88–92. CrossRefPubMed Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., & Hojat, M. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction lowers psychological distress in medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 15(2), 88–92. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sandercock, G. R., Bromley, P. D., & Brodie, D. A. (2005). Effects of exercise on heart rate variability: inferences from meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(3), 433–439. CrossRefPubMed Sandercock, G. R., Bromley, P. D., & Brodie, D. A. (2005). Effects of exercise on heart rate variability: inferences from meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(3), 433–439. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sax, L. J. (1997). Health trends among college freshmen. Journal of American College Health, 45(6), 252–262. CrossRefPubMed Sax, L. J. (1997). Health trends among college freshmen. Journal of American College Health, 45(6), 252–262. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shearer, A., Hunt, M., Chowdhury, M., & Nicol, L. (2015). Effects of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention on student stress and heart rate variability. International Journal of Stress Management. Advance online publication. doi: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0039814. Shearer, A., Hunt, M., Chowdhury, M., & Nicol, L. (2015). Effects of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention on student stress and heart rate variability. International Journal of Stress Management. Advance online publication. doi: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0039814.
go back to reference Spielberger, C.D., & Gorsuch, R.L. (1983).  Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) ("Self-Evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Spielberger, C.D., & Gorsuch, R.L. (1983).  Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) ("Self-Evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI: manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI: manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Struthers, C. W., Perry, R. P., & Menec, V. H. (2000). An examination of the relationship among academic stress, coping, motivation and performance in college. Research in Higher Education, 41(5), 581–592. CrossRef Struthers, C. W., Perry, R. P., & Menec, V. H. (2000). An examination of the relationship among academic stress, coping, motivation and performance in college. Research in Higher Education, 41(5), 581–592. CrossRef
go back to reference Tang, Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213–225. CrossRefPubMed Tang, Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213–225. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tarvainen, M. P., & Niskanen, J. (2012). Kubios HRV version 2.1 user’s guide. Finland: University of Eastern Finland. Tarvainen, M. P., & Niskanen, J. (2012). Kubios HRV version 2.1 user’s guide. Finland: University of Eastern Finland.
go back to reference Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. (1996). Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation, 93, 1043–1065. CrossRef Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. (1996). Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation, 93, 1043–1065. CrossRef
go back to reference Thayer, J. F., Hansen, A. L., Saus-Rose, E., & Johnsen, B. H. (2009). Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: the neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(2), 141–153. CrossRefPubMed Thayer, J. F., Hansen, A. L., Saus-Rose, E., & Johnsen, B. H. (2009). Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: the neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(2), 141–153. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Thayer, J. F., Åhs, F., Fredrikson, M., Sollers, J. J., & Wager, T. D. (2012). A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(2), 747–756. CrossRef Thayer, J. F., Åhs, F., Fredrikson, M., Sollers, J. J., & Wager, T. D. (2012). A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(2), 747–756. CrossRef
go back to reference Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063. CrossRefPubMed Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment Inc. Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment Inc.
Metagegevens
Titel
Mindfulness Training, Yoga, or Both? Dismantling the Active Components of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Intervention
Auteurs
Melissa Hunt
Farah Al-Braiki
Shannon Dailey
Rachel Russell
Krystyna Simon
Publicatiedatum
29-08-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 2/2018
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0793-z