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01-11-2011 | Uitgave 9/2011

Quality of Life Research 9/2011

Measuring health and well-being effects in family caregivers of children with craniofacial malformations

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 9/2011
Nalin Payakachat, J. Mick Tilford, Werner BF Brouwer, N. Job van Exel, Scott D. Grosse
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-011-9870-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



This research explores the sensitivity of three generic instruments for preference-weighting health states of family caregivers of children with craniofacial malformations (CFM). We also examine the construct validity of the new CarerQol instrument measuring caregiver burden and general quality of life.


Caregivers of children born with CFM were identified through the Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System. A mailed survey included the HUI3, the SF-6D, the QWB-SA to measure health-related quality of life; the CES-D measuring depressive symptoms as well as the SRB scale, and the CarerQol. The HUI3, the SF-6D, and the QWB-SA were examined in relation to the CES-D the SRB, the CarerQol, and each other.


A total of 65 (63%) parents of children (≤17 years) responded. The mean SF-6D, HUI3, and QWB-SA scores were 0.81 (SD = 0.13), 0.84 (SD = 0.23), and 0.67 (SD = 0.14), respectively. The mean CES-D score was 13.3 (SD = 13.4) and 28.6% of the sample met a threshold for depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16). The mean CarerQol-VAS and SRB scores were 7.5 (SD = 2.3) and 15.1 (SD = 23.5), respectively. The Spearman correlations (ρ) of the HUI3 and the SF-6D with the CES-D were similar (−0.81 and −0.76) while the ρ was lower (−0.57) for the QWB-SA. Preference-weighted scores of caregivers with CES-D scores ≥ 16 differed significantly for both the SF-6D and the HUI3, but not the QWB-SA. All three generic instruments showed moderate to strong relationships with the CarerQol.


The HUI3 and SF-6D were more sensitive predictors of depressive symptoms in this caregiver sample than was the QWB-SA. The CarerQol showed good construct validity and may be useful for measuring well-being effects associated with caregiving.

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 31 kb)
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