Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

24-02-2022

Listening in: An Alternative Method for Measuring the Family Emotional Environment

Auteurs: Tawni B. Stoop, Pamela M. Cole

Gepubliceerd in: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review | Uitgave 1/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The family emotional environment influences children’s development of emotion regulation in various ways. Children’s difficulties with effectively regulating emotions, in turn, can contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, the pathways that explain how environmental emotion—including overheard emotion among family members—influences children’s development of healthy or problematic emotion regulation are unclear. In this article, we briefly discuss the most common methods (e.g., questionnaires, laboratory observations) used to assess emotion in the family. We consider the benefits and limitations of these methods and discuss the need for objective measurement of the family emotional environment. We include a description of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), which provides unobtrusive, extended sampling of the emotional tone of family interaction in the home. We present preliminary evidence of its use with 7- and 8-year-old and their families during one day at home. The method reveals that objectively assessed parent-to-parent interactions that are negatively toned, but not parental self-report of conflict or expressivity, are associated with children’s self-reported emotional reactions to hearing independently recorded clips of their mothers’ voices during simulated angry interactions. The finding suggests unique contributions of objective, unobtrusive, extended measurement of the family emotional environment to understanding aspects of children’s emotional development that may not be captured with other commonly used methods. We discuss future directions that explore how EAR may be used to further our knowledge of the pathways between environmental emotion as a risk factor that influences children’s emotional functioning and their psychological well-being.
Literatuur
go back to reference August, E. G., Stack, D. M., Martin-Storey, A., Serbin, L. A., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2017). Emotion regulation in at-risk preschoolers: Longitudinal associations and influences of maternal histories of risk. Infant and Child Development, 26, e1954. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1954CrossRef August, E. G., Stack, D. M., Martin-Storey, A., Serbin, L. A., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2017). Emotion regulation in at-risk preschoolers: Longitudinal associations and influences of maternal histories of risk. Infant and Child Development, 26, e1954. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​icd.​1954CrossRef
go back to reference Bai, S., Repetti, R. L., & Sperling, J. B. (2016). Children’s expressions of positive emotion are sustained by smiling, touching, and playing with parents and siblings: A naturalistic observational study of family life. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 88–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039854PubMedCrossRef Bai, S., Repetti, R. L., & Sperling, J. B. (2016). Children’s expressions of positive emotion are sustained by smiling, touching, and playing with parents and siblings: A naturalistic observational study of family life. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 88–101. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0039854PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bedford, V. H., & Volling, B. L. (2004). A dynamic ecological systems perspective on emotion regulation development within the sibling relationship context. In F. R. Lang & K. L. Fingerman (Eds.), Growing together: Personal relationships across the lifespan (pp. 76–102). Cambridge University Press. Bedford, V. H., & Volling, B. L. (2004). A dynamic ecological systems perspective on emotion regulation development within the sibling relationship context. In F. R. Lang & K. L. Fingerman (Eds.), Growing together: Personal relationships across the lifespan (pp. 76–102). Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Belsky, J. (1980). Mother-infant interaction at home and in the laboratory: A comparative study. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 137(1), 37–47.PubMedCrossRef Belsky, J. (1980). Mother-infant interaction at home and in the laboratory: A comparative study. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 137(1), 37–47.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Braiker, H., & Kelley, H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R. Burgess & T. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange and developing relationships (pp. 127–154). Academic Press. Braiker, H., & Kelley, H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R. Burgess & T. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange and developing relationships (pp. 127–154). Academic Press.
go back to reference Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 387–411.PubMedCrossRef Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 387–411.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Halberstadt, J. B., & Niedenthal, P. M. (2001). Effects of emotion concepts on perceptual memory for emotional expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(4), 587–598.PubMedCrossRef Halberstadt, J. B., & Niedenthal, P. M. (2001). Effects of emotion concepts on perceptual memory for emotional expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(4), 587–598.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Herbison, J. D., Martin, L. J., Slatcher, R. B., Boardley, I., Benson, A., Sutcliffe, J., McLaren, C., Carre, J. M., Cote, J., Coletti, J. T., & Bruner, M. W. (2020). The electronically activated recorder (EAR): A novel approach for examining social environments in youth sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2020.1790025CrossRef Herbison, J. D., Martin, L. J., Slatcher, R. B., Boardley, I., Benson, A., Sutcliffe, J., McLaren, C., Carre, J. M., Cote, J., Coletti, J. T., & Bruner, M. W. (2020). The electronically activated recorder (EAR): A novel approach for examining social environments in youth sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​1750984X.​2020.​1790025CrossRef
go back to reference Ip, K. I., Miller, A. L., Karasawa, M., Hirabayashi, H., Kazama, M., Wang, L., Olson, S. L., Kessler, D., & Tardif, T. (2021). Emotion expression and regulation in three cultures: Chinese, Japanese, and American preschoolers’ reactions to disappointment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 201(1), 104972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104972PubMedCrossRef Ip, K. I., Miller, A. L., Karasawa, M., Hirabayashi, H., Kazama, M., Wang, L., Olson, S. L., Kessler, D., & Tardif, T. (2021). Emotion expression and regulation in three cultures: Chinese, Japanese, and American preschoolers’ reactions to disappointment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 201(1), 104972. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jecp.​2020.​104972PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jacob, T., Tennebaum, D. L., & Krahn, G. (1987). Factors influencing the reliability and validity of observation data. In T. Jacob (Ed.), Family interaction and psychopathology: Applied clinical psychology (pp. 297–328). Springer.CrossRef Jacob, T., Tennebaum, D. L., & Krahn, G. (1987). Factors influencing the reliability and validity of observation data. In T. Jacob (Ed.), Family interaction and psychopathology: Applied clinical psychology (pp. 297–328). Springer.CrossRef
go back to reference Kaplan, D. M., Rentscher, K. E., Lim, M., Reyes, R., Keating, D., Romero, J., Shah, A., Smith, A. D., York, K. A., Milek, A., Tackman, A. M., & Mehl, M. R. (2020). Best practices for Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) research: A practical guide to coding and processing EAR data. Behavior Research Methods, 52, 1538–1551. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-0133-yPubMedCrossRef Kaplan, D. M., Rentscher, K. E., Lim, M., Reyes, R., Keating, D., Romero, J., Shah, A., Smith, A. D., York, K. A., Milek, A., Tackman, A. M., & Mehl, M. R. (2020). Best practices for Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) research: A practical guide to coding and processing EAR data. Behavior Research Methods, 52, 1538–1551. https://​doi.​org/​10.​3758/​s13428-019-0133-yPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The experience sampling method. Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology. Springer. Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The experience sampling method. Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology. Springer.
go back to reference McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2005). Sibling relationships in childhood: Implications for life course study. In V. Bengston, A. Accock, K. Allen, P. Dilworth-Anderson, & D. Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory and research (pp. 184–190). Sage. McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2005). Sibling relationships in childhood: Implications for life course study. In V. Bengston, A. Accock, K. Allen, P. Dilworth-Anderson, & D. Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory and research (pp. 184–190). Sage.
go back to reference Mehl, M. R., Pennebaker, J. W., Crow, M. D., Dabbs, J., & Price, J. H. (2001). The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): A device for sampling naturalistic daily activities and conversations. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 33, 517–523. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195410CrossRef Mehl, M. R., Pennebaker, J. W., Crow, M. D., Dabbs, J., & Price, J. H. (2001). The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): A device for sampling naturalistic daily activities and conversations. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 33, 517–523. https://​doi.​org/​10.​3758/​BF03195410CrossRef
go back to reference Pennebaker, J. W., Booth, R. J., Boyd, R. L., & Francis, M. E. (2015). Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count: LIWC2015. Austin, TX: Pennebaker Conglomerates. Retrieved from www.LIWC.net Pennebaker, J. W., Booth, R. J., Boyd, R. L., & Francis, M. E. (2015). Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count: LIWC2015. Austin, TX: Pennebaker Conglomerates. Retrieved from www.​LIWC.​net
go back to reference Repetti, R. L., Sears, M. S., & Bai, S. (2015). Social and emotional development in the context of the family. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), international encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (2nd ed., pp. 156–161). Elsevier.CrossRef Repetti, R. L., Sears, M. S., & Bai, S. (2015). Social and emotional development in the context of the family. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), international encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (2nd ed., pp. 156–161). Elsevier.CrossRef
go back to reference Robinson, L. R., Morris, A. S., Heller, S. S., Scheeringa, M. S., Boris, N. W., & Smyke, A. T. (2009). Relations between emotion regulation, parenting, and psychopathology in young maltreated children in out of home care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 421–434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-008-9246-6CrossRef Robinson, L. R., Morris, A. S., Heller, S. S., Scheeringa, M. S., Boris, N. W., & Smyke, A. T. (2009). Relations between emotion regulation, parenting, and psychopathology in young maltreated children in out of home care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 421–434. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10826-008-9246-6CrossRef
go back to reference Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. Guilford Press. Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. Guilford Press.
go back to reference Slatcher, R. B., & Tobin, E. T. (2012). Everyday child home observation coding system. Wayne State University. Slatcher, R. B., & Tobin, E. T. (2012). Everyday child home observation coding system. Wayne State University.
go back to reference Smyth, J. M., & Heron, K. E. (2014). Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in family research. In S. M. McHale, P. Amato, & A. Booth (Eds.), Emerging methods in family research (pp. 145–161). Springer.CrossRef Smyth, J. M., & Heron, K. E. (2014). Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in family research. In S. M. McHale, P. Amato, & A. Booth (Eds.), Emerging methods in family research (pp. 145–161). Springer.CrossRef
go back to reference Stevenson, M. B., Leavitt, L. A., Roach, M. A., Chapman, R. S., & Miller, J. F. (1986). Mothers’ speech to their 1-year-old infants in home and laboratory settings. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15(5), 451–461.PubMedCrossRef Stevenson, M. B., Leavitt, L. A., Roach, M. A., Chapman, R. S., & Miller, J. F. (1986). Mothers’ speech to their 1-year-old infants in home and laboratory settings. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15(5), 451–461.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sutcliffe, J. T., Herbison, J. D., Matin, L. J., McLaren, C. D., Slatcher, R., Benson, A. J., Van Woezik, R., Boardley, I. D., Carre, J. M., Cote, J., & Bruner, M. W. (2021). Exploring parent-athlete sport related communication outside of the sport environment with the Electronically Activated Recorder. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 54, 101919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101919CrossRef Sutcliffe, J. T., Herbison, J. D., Matin, L. J., McLaren, C. D., Slatcher, R., Benson, A. J., Van Woezik, R., Boardley, I. D., Carre, J. M., Cote, J., & Bruner, M. W. (2021). Exploring parent-athlete sport related communication outside of the sport environment with the Electronically Activated Recorder. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 54, 101919. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​psychsport.​2021.​101919CrossRef
go back to reference Vasileva, M., Schilpzand, E. J., Mangelsdorf, S. N., Conroy, R., Barrett, A., Jowett, H., Bressan, S., Babl, F. E., Anderson, V., Mehl, M. R., & Alisic, E. (2021). Children’s daily life after potentially traumatic injury: A naturalistic observation study. Traumatology. https://doi.org/10.1037/trm0000301CrossRef Vasileva, M., Schilpzand, E. J., Mangelsdorf, S. N., Conroy, R., Barrett, A., Jowett, H., Bressan, S., Babl, F. E., Anderson, V., Mehl, M. R., & Alisic, E. (2021). Children’s daily life after potentially traumatic injury: A naturalistic observation study. Traumatology. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​trm0000301CrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, D. G., Bitran, D., Miller, A. B., Schaefer, J. D., Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2019). Difficulties with emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic mechanism linking child maltreatment with the emergence of psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology, 31(3), 899–915. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579419000348CrossRef Weissman, D. G., Bitran, D., Miller, A. B., Schaefer, J. D., Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2019). Difficulties with emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic mechanism linking child maltreatment with the emergence of psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology, 31(3), 899–915. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S095457941900034​8CrossRef
go back to reference West, K. B., Shaffer, A., Wickrama, K. A. S., Han, Z. R., & Suveg, C. (2021). Preschoolers’ dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change during a challenging parent-child interactive task: Relations with preschoolers’ socioemotional health. Developmental Psychobiology, 63, 1132–1145. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.22054PubMedCrossRef West, K. B., Shaffer, A., Wickrama, K. A. S., Han, Z. R., & Suveg, C. (2021). Preschoolers’ dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change during a challenging parent-child interactive task: Relations with preschoolers’ socioemotional health. Developmental Psychobiology, 63, 1132–1145. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​dev.​22054PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Listening in: An Alternative Method for Measuring the Family Emotional Environment
Auteurs
Tawni B. Stoop
Pamela M. Cole
Publicatiedatum
24-02-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review / Uitgave 1/2022
Print ISSN: 1096-4037
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2827
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-022-00392-6

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2022

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 1/2022 Naar de uitgave