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Gepubliceerd in: Netherlands Heart Journal 1/2020

Open Access 12-08-2019 | Image Puzzle – Answer

Lead detour

Auteurs: L. M. van den Broek, S. W. Westra, R. Evertz, M. Boulaksil

Gepubliceerd in: Netherlands Heart Journal | Uitgave 1/2020

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Answer

In this case, an isolated persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) was present. A PLSVC is a remnant of the left cardinal vein which is normally obliterated during early embryological development, leaving the ligament of Marshall [1]. Failure of this regression will leave a PLSVC. In about 90% of cases, a PLSVC drains into the coronary sinus [2].
A PLSVC usually coexists with a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) or, less frequently, with a persistent bridging vein. In our case, however, a very rare isolated PLSVC was present, in which regression or obliteration of the RSVC occurs. Though rare, PLSVC is the most common venous anomaly, with a prevalence ranging from 0.3 to 0.5% in the general population and up to 10% in patients with congenital heart disease [2]. An isolated PLSVC is even rarer, with a prevalence of 0.07–0.13%. Usually, it is asymptomatic and an incidental finding during an implantation procedure or on imaging. A dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise suspicion of a PLSVC.
In patients with an isolated PLSVC, especially right ventricular lead placement can be technically demanding due to the acute angle between the coronary sinus ostium and the tricuspid valve. In our case, we used a pigtail-shaped stylet to loop the lead in the right atrium and enter the right ventricle.
During our procedure, it became clear that advancement of the leads through the RSVC was impossible, so we decided to cross over to the PLSVC. Eventually, a right-sided dual-chamber pacemaker was successfully implanted. Left-sided device implantation through a PLSVC may be complex, but also remains a feasible approach. Long-term results of pacemaker implantation in patients with an isolated PLSVC are good [3]. In conclusion, we implanted a right-sided pacemaker with the leads through an isolated PLSVC.

Conflict of interest

L.M. van den Broek, S.W. Westra, R. Evertz and M. Boulaksil declare that they have no competing interests.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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Netherlands Heart Journal

Het Netherlands Heart Journal wordt uitgegeven in samenwerking met de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Cardiologie en de Nederlandse Hartstichting. Het tijdschrift is Engelstalig en wordt gratis beschikbaa ...

Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Campbell M, Deuchar DC. The left-sided superior vena cava. Br Heart J. 1954;16:423–39. CrossRef Campbell M, Deuchar DC. The left-sided superior vena cava. Br Heart J. 1954;16:423–39. CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Irwin RB, Greaves M, Schmitt M. Left superior vena cava: revisited. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;13:284–91. CrossRef Irwin RB, Greaves M, Schmitt M. Left superior vena cava: revisited. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;13:284–91. CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Sinha SK, Goel A, Razi M, et al. Permanent pacemaker implantation in patients with isolated persistent left superior vena cava from a right-sided approach: technical considerations and follow-up outcome. Cardiol Res. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2019;10:18:23. Sinha SK, Goel A, Razi M, et al. Permanent pacemaker implantation in patients with isolated persistent left superior vena cava from a right-sided approach: technical considerations and follow-up outcome. Cardiol Res. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2019;10:18:23.
Metagegevens
Titel
Lead detour
Auteurs
L. M. van den Broek
S. W. Westra
R. Evertz
M. Boulaksil
Publicatiedatum
12-08-2019
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Netherlands Heart Journal / Uitgave 1/2020
Print ISSN: 1568-5888
Elektronisch ISSN: 1876-6250
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12471-019-01321-z