Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Research into emotional responsiveness in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has yielded mixed findings. Some studies report uniform, flat and emotionless expressions in ASD; others describe highly variable expressions that are as or even more intense than those of typically developing (TD) individuals. Variability in findings is likely due to differences in study design: some studies have examined posed (i.e., not spontaneous expressions) and others have examined spontaneous expressions in social contexts, during which individuals with ASD—by nature of the disorder—are likely to behave differently than their TD peers. To determine whether (and how) spontaneous facial expressions and other emotional responses are different from TD individuals, we video-recorded the spontaneous responses of children and adolescents with and without ASD (between the ages of 10 and 17 years) as they watched emotionally evocative videos in a non-social context. Researchers coded facial expressions for intensity, and noted the presence of laughter and other responsive vocalizations. Adolescents with ASD displayed more intense, frequent and varied spontaneous facial expressions than their TD peers. They also produced significantly more emotional vocalizations, including laughter. Individuals with ASD may display their emotions more frequently and more intensely than TD individuals when they are unencumbered by social pressure. Differences in the interpretation of the social setting and/or understanding of emotional display rules may also contribute to differences in emotional behaviors between groups.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
Barbaro, J., & Dissanayake, C. (2007). A comparative study of the use and understanding of self-presentational display rules in children with high functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(7), 1235–1246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0267-y. CrossRefPubMed
Begeer, S., Banerjee, R., Rieffe, C., Terwogt, M. M., Potharst, E., Stegge, H., & Koot, H. M. (2011). The understanding and self-reported use of emotional display rules in children with autism spectrum disorders. Cognition & Emotion, 25(5), 947–956. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2010.516924. CrossRef
Bryant, G. A., & Aktipis, C. A. (2014). The animal nature of spontaneous human laughter. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35(4), 327–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.03.003. CrossRef
Buck, R., Losow, J. I., Murphy, M. M., & Costanzo, P. (1992). Social facilitation and inhibition of emotional expression and communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(6), 962–968. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1242. CrossRefPubMed
Capps, L., Kasari, C., Yirmiya, N., & Sigman, M. (1993). Parental perception of emotional expressiveness in children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 475–484. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.3.475. CrossRefPubMed
Eisner, F., Ekman, P., Scott, S. K., Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S. K. (2015). Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, E3086–E3086. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1508604112. CrossRef
Ekman, P. (2004). Emotional and conversational nonverbal signals. Language, Knowledge, and Representation. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof.
Fridlund, A. J., Apfelbaum, B., Blum, G., Brown, D., Balakrishnan, J., Loomis, J., et al. (1991). Sociality of solitary smiling : potentiation by an implicit audience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 229–240. CrossRef
Grossman, R. B., Edelson, L. R., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2013). emotional facial and vocal expressions during story retelling by children and adolescents with high-functioning autism. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(June 2013), 1035–1044. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0067)Journal. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551–575. CrossRef
Hudenko, W.J., Stone, W., & Bachorowski, J. (2009). Laughter differs in children with autism: An acoustic analysis of laughs produced by children with and without the disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1392–1400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0752-1.
Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217–250. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.11.5.949.
Kasari, C., Sigman, M., Mundy, P., & Yirmiya, N. (1990). Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20(1), 87–100 Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.bc.edu/docview/63081157?accountid=9673. CrossRefPubMed
Kasari, C., Sigman, M., & Yirmiya, N. (1993). Focused and social attention of autistic children in interactions with familiar and unfamiliar adults: A comparison of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children. Development and Psychopathology, 5(3), 403–414. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004491. CrossRef
Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Kaufman brief intelligence test: KBIT 2. Bloomington: Pearson.
Kraut, R. E. (1982). Social presence, facial feedback, and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(5), 853–863. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993. CrossRef
Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (2003). Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised. Western Psychological Services.
Lord, C., DiLavore, P. C., Gotham, K., Guthrie, W., Luyster, R. J., Risi, S., Rutter, M. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: ADOS-2. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA.
Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., & Nakagawa, S. (2008). Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(6), 925–937. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.525. CrossRefPubMed
Mazefsky, C. A., & White, S. W. (2014). Emotion regulation: concepts & practice in autism spectrum disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23(1), 15–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2013.07.002. CrossRefPubMed
Mazefsky, C. A., Borue, X., Day, T. N., & Minshew, N. J. (2014). Emotion regulation patterns in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: Comparison to typically developing adolescents and association with psychiatric symptoms. Autism Research, 7(3), 344–354. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1366. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
McIntosh, D. N., Reichmann-Decker, A., Winkielman, P., & Wilbarger, J. L. (2006). When the social mirror breaks: deficits in automatic, but not voluntary, mimicry of emotional facial expressions in autism. Developmental Science, 9(3), 295–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2006.00492.x. CrossRefPubMed
Namba, S., Makihara, S., Kabir, R. S., Miyatani, M., & Nakao, T. (2016). spontaneous facial expressions are different from posed facial expressions: morphological properties and dynamic sequences. Current Psychology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9448-9.
Robertson, J. M., Tanguay, P. E., L’Ecuyer, S., Sims, A., & Waltrip, C. (1999). Domains of social communication handicap in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(6), 738–745. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199906000-00022. CrossRef
Ruch, W., & Ekman, P. (2001). The expressive pattern of laughter. Emotion Qualia, and Consciousness, (JULY 2001), 426--443. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812810687.
Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Safdar, S., Friedlmeier, W., Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Kwantes, C. T., Kakai, H., & Shigemasu, E. (2009). Variations of emotional display rules within and across cultures: A comparison between Canada, USA, and Japan. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 41(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014387. CrossRef
Scott, S., Lavan, N., Chen, S., & Mcgettigan, C. (2015). Europe PMC Funders Group The social life of laughter, 18(12), 618–620. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.09.002.The.
Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2003). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals, fourth edition (CELF-4) (4th ed.). Toronto: The Psychological Corporation/A Harcourt Assessment Company.
Trevisan, D. A., Bowering, M., & Birmingham, E. (2016). Alexithymia, but not autism spectrum disorder, may be related to the production of emotional facial expressions. Moleular Autism 7, 46. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0108-6.
Warnes, G. R., Bolker, B., Lumley, T., & Johnson, R. C. (2013). gmodels: Various R programming tools for model fitting. Retrieved from http://cran.r-project.org/package=gmodels
Yarczower, M., & Daruns, L. (1982). Social inhibition of spontaneous facial expressions in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(4), 831–837. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2061. CrossRef
Yirmiya, N., Kasari, C., Sigman, M., & Mundy, P. (1989). Facial expressions of affect in autistic, mentally retarded and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 30(5), 725–735. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00785.x. CrossRefPubMed
Yoshimura, S., Sato, W., Uono, S., & Toichi, M. (2015). Impaired overt facial mimicry in response to dynamic facial expressions in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 131801328. CrossRef
Zeman, J., & Garber, J. (1996). display rules for anger, sadness, and pain: it depends on who is watching. Child Development, 67(3), 957–973. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01776.x. CrossRefPubMed
- I Think We’re Alone Now: Solitary Social Behaviors in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Ruth B. Grossman
- Springer US