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Recently, an expansion of traditional coping models for chronic pain has been offered. This model specifically includes acceptance of chronic pain, as well as the more general process of psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility includes qualities of behavior such as acceptance and mindfulness, and the capacity to take committed and values-directed or goals-directed action, among other qualities. The present study was intended to refine and validate a measure of psychological flexibility, titled the Brief Pain Response Inventory (BPRI), and determine its relation with key indices of patient functioning. In total, 205 adults with chronic pain who were beginning a program of treatment completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the presence of two factors within the items of the BPRI: Flexible Action and Willing Engagement. Subscale and total scores were generally unrelated with patient background variables, although they were related to, and accounted for significant variance in, measures of emotional, physical, and psychosocial functioning. These analyses provide additional support for the relevance of psychological flexibility to the problem of chronic pain, as well as initial evidence for the BPRI as a measure of this process.
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- Further development of an instrument to assess psychological flexibility in people with chronic pain
Lance M. McCracken
Kevin E. Vowles
- Springer US