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22-03-2023

Co-occurring Stress Trajectories and the Longitudinal Coupling of Internalizing Symptoms in Parent-Adolescent Dyads

Auteurs: Julianne M. Griffith, Erin E. Long, Jami F. Young, Benjamin L. Hankin

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 6/2023

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Abstract

Stress is one candidate mechanism posited to contribute to the intergenerational risk of psychopathology. However, the ways in which parent and child stress are related across adolescence, and the role that co-occurring parent and child stress may exert regarding bidirectional risk for internalizing symptoms, are not well understood. Using repeated measures data spanning 3-years, this study investigated (1) the extent to which trajectories of parent and child stress are related during adolescence, and (2) whether co-occurring parent and child stress trajectories mediate prospective, bidirectional associations between parent depression symptoms and child internalizing symptoms (depression, physical and social anxiety). Participants included 618 parent-adolescent dyads (age 8-16; 57% girls; 89% mothers). Parent depressive symptoms and child symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and physical anxiety were assessed via self-report questionnaire at baseline and 36 months later. Parent and child stress were assessed via self-report questionnaire every three months between 3- and 33-months (11 total assessments). Latent growth curve model (LGCM) analysis found that parent and child stress trajectories were positively related across development. Prospective LGCM mediation analysis showed that higher youth stress at 3-months partially mediated prospective relations between parental depressive symptoms at baseline and youth depressive, as well as physical and social anxiety symptoms at 36-months. Parent and child stress reinforce each other across adolescence and may lead to increased risk for psychopathology. Increases in child stress represent an important factor conferring transdiagnostic risk for internalizing among children of depressed parents.
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1
As described in the study Methods, sampling for the present study was conducted using an accelerated longitudinal cohort design such that youth were recruited in discrete 3rd, 6th, and 9th grade cohorts. Due to this sampling feature, age was not distributed continuously amongst study participants. For this reason, we elected to use grade cohort, rather than age, as the clearest and most interpretable indicator of youth development in the present study.
 
2
Data concerning the participating caregiver’s relationship to the participating youth was not available in 3.4% of cases.
 
3
The following institutions provided IRB approval for the present study: University of Denver, Rutgers University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.
 
4
Multiple group models in which cross-partner covariances (e.g., slope of parent stress with slope child stress, intercept of parent stress with intercept of child stress, etc.) were successively constrained and un-constrained across gender and grade cohort groups revealed that effects were not meaningfully different across boys and girls (χ2=3.36, df=4, p=.500) as well as 3rd, 6th, and 9th grade cohorts (χ2=8.73, df=8, p=.366).
 
5
Results of model comparison tests evaluating group differences in patterns of effects according to youth grade cohort were not significant according to a priori cut-offs of null hypothesis significant testing (i.e., p<0.05). Further, comparison of relative change in CFI and RMSEA fit indices indicated negligible change in relative fit across models, further supporting interpretations of invariance (see Supplemental Table 2). Nevertheless, we provide the complete model results by grade cohort in Supplemental Table 3 for interested readers. Of note, we do not endeavor to interpret small changes in parameters estimates across grade cohorts, given results of model testing. Further, results must be considered tentative given relatively limited cell sizes within each grade cohort. We hope these exploratory results serve to inform future research clarifying continuity and discontinuity in the mechanisms of intergenerational risk transmission across development.
 
6
To better understand the incremental value of simultaneously modeling co-occurring stress trajectories as potential mediators in the intergenerational transmission of internalizing above and beyond modeling individual parent and child stress trajectories alone as mediators of these prospective relations, a series of follow-up analyses were conducted. Specifically, one model was conducted in which prospective, bidirectional associations between parent and child internalizing symptoms and the intercept and slope of child stress trajectories were evaluated (Supplemental Table 4), and another model was conducted in which prospective, bidirectional associations between parent and child internalizing symptoms and the intercept and slope of parent stress trajectories were evaluated (Supplemental Table 5). Overall, models yielded a similar pattern of results to those reported in the present manuscript. Of note, when only child stress trajectories were modeled (and parents’ own stress trajectories were not accounted for), the intercept (β=0.15, p=0.007) and slope terms (β=0.11, p=0.035) characterizing growth in child stress across the follow-up period were observed to demonstrate significant positive associations with parental depressive symptoms at 36-months (Supplemental Table 4). In a similar manner, when only parent stress trajectories were modeled (and children’s own stress trajectories were not accounted for), the intercept term characterizing growth in parent stress across the follow-up period was observed to positively relate to child depressive (β=0.11, p=0.045) and physical anxiety symptoms (β=0.15, p=0.010) at 36-months (Supplemental Table 5).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Co-occurring Stress Trajectories and the Longitudinal Coupling of Internalizing Symptoms in Parent-Adolescent Dyads
Auteurs
Julianne M. Griffith
Erin E. Long
Jami F. Young
Benjamin L. Hankin
Publicatiedatum
22-03-2023
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 6/2023
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-023-01046-z

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