Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 2/2024

14-02-2024

Automated Coding of Children’s Spoken Language is Associated with Internalizing Symptoms and Cortisol Reactivity to Stress

Auteurs: Bianca C. Iddiols, Andrew R. Daoust, Jennifer N. Mullen, Yuliya Kotelnikova, Elizabeth P. Hayden

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 2/2024

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Automated coding has the potential to streamline otherwise laborious manual coding of psychologically relevant human behaviour. For example, automated coding of adults’ written language (e.g., social media posts) shows that incidental language patterns are associated with internal psychological processes, including symptoms of depression. However, it is unclear whether automated coding of children’s incidental spoken language is related to their symptoms and other indices of risk. We therefore examined associations between 146 children’s (Mage = 9.53 years, SD = 0.88; 82 girls) spoken language, transcribed for automated coding, and their internalizing symptoms and cortisol stress reactivity. Children completed self-reports of depression and anxiety, and cortisol reactivity to stress was measured using salivary cortisol samples during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Emotional and other linguistic indices derived using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software package were meaningfully correlated with children’s depressive symptoms and children’s cortisol reactivity, with medium mean effect sizes of |r| = 0.21 (range: 0.19-0.28) and |r| = 0.23 (range: 0.20-0.29), respectively, across significant correlations, providing preliminary evidence that children’s spoken language coded via automated methods is a valid marker of children’s internal states.
Literatuur
go back to reference Bauer, P. J., Stark, E. N., Lukowski, A. F., Rademacher, J., Van Abbema, D. L., & Ackil, J. K. (2005). Working together to make sense of the past: Mothers’ and children’s use of internal states language in conversations about traumatic and nontraumatic events. Journal of Cognition and Development, 6(4), 463–488. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327647jcd0604_2.CrossRef Bauer, P. J., Stark, E. N., Lukowski, A. F., Rademacher, J., Van Abbema, D. L., & Ackil, J. K. (2005). Working together to make sense of the past: Mothers’ and children’s use of internal states language in conversations about traumatic and nontraumatic events. Journal of Cognition and Development, 6(4), 463–488. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1207/​s15327647jcd0604​_​2.CrossRef
go back to reference Brand, S., Mikoteit, T., Kalak, N., Bahmani, S., Lemola, D., Gerber, S., Ludyga, M., Bossard, S., Pühse, M., Holsboer-Trachsler, U., E., & Hatzinger, M. (2018). Cortisol impacted on explicit learning encoding, but not on storage and retrieval, and was not associated with sleep patterns - results from the Trier Social stress test for children (TSST-C) among 9-years old children. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2240. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Brand, S., Mikoteit, T., Kalak, N., Bahmani, S., Lemola, D., Gerber, S., Ludyga, M., Bossard, S., Pühse, M., Holsboer-Trachsler, U., E., & Hatzinger, M. (2018). Cortisol impacted on explicit learning encoding, but not on storage and retrieval, and was not associated with sleep patterns - results from the Trier Social stress test for children (TSST-C) among 9-years old children. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2240. https://​doi.​org/​10.​3389/​fpsyg.​2018.​02240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Brockmeyer, T., Zimmermann, J., Kulessa, D., Hautzinger, M., Bents, H., Friederich, H-C., Herzog, W., & Backenstrass, M. (2015). Me, myself, and I: Self-referent word use as an indicator of self-focused attention in relation to depression and anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01564. Brockmeyer, T., Zimmermann, J., Kulessa, D., Hautzinger, M., Bents, H., Friederich, H-C., Herzog, W., & Backenstrass, M. (2015). Me, myself, and I: Self-referent word use as an indicator of self-focused attention in relation to depression and anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, https://​doi.​org/​10.​3389/​fpsyg.​2015.​01564.
go back to reference Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). American Guidance Service. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Eichstaedt, J. C., Smith, R. J., Merchant, R. M., Ungar, L. H., Crutchley, P., Preoţiuc-Pietro, D., Asch, D. A., & Schwartz, H. A. (2018). Facebook language predicts depression in medical records. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(44), 11203–11208. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802331115.CrossRef Eichstaedt, J. C., Smith, R. J., Merchant, R. M., Ungar, L. H., Crutchley, P., Preoţiuc-Pietro, D., Asch, D. A., & Schwartz, H. A. (2018). Facebook language predicts depression in medical records. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(44), 11203–11208. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1073/​pnas.​1802331115.CrossRef
go back to reference Eriksson, M., Marschik, P. B., Tulviste, T., Almgren, M., Pérez Pereira, M., Wehberg, S., Marjanovič-Umek, L., Gayraud, F., Kovacevic, M., & Gallego, C. (2012). Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills: Evidence from 10 language communities: Differences between girls and boys in early language. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(2), 326–343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.2011.02042.x.CrossRefPubMed Eriksson, M., Marschik, P. B., Tulviste, T., Almgren, M., Pérez Pereira, M., Wehberg, S., Marjanovič-Umek, L., Gayraud, F., Kovacevic, M., & Gallego, C. (2012). Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills: Evidence from 10 language communities: Differences between girls and boys in early language. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(2), 326–343. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​j.​2044-835X.​2011.​02042.​x.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gerard, A. B., & Reynolds, C. R. (1999). Characteristics and applications of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (pp. 323–340). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gerard, A. B., & Reynolds, C. R. (1999). Characteristics and applications of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (pp. 323–340). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Green, H. E., Gabel, L. N., Stewart, E. K., Kotelnikova, Y., & Hayden, E. P. (under review). Latent structure and measurement invariance of the depression self-rating scale for children across sex and age. Psychological Assessment. Green, H. E., Gabel, L. N., Stewart, E. K., Kotelnikova, Y., & Hayden, E. P. (under review). Latent structure and measurement invariance of the depression self-rating scale for children across sex and age. Psychological Assessment.
go back to reference Guntuku, S. C., Giorgi, S., & Ungar, L. (2018). Current and future psychological health prediction using language and socio-demographics of children for the CLPysch 2018 Shared Task. Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology: from Keyboard to Clinic, 98-106, https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W18-0610. Guntuku, S. C., Giorgi, S., & Ungar, L. (2018). Current and future psychological health prediction using language and socio-demographics of children for the CLPysch 2018 Shared Task. Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology: from Keyboard to Clinic, 98-106, https://​doi.​org/​10.​18653/​v1/​W18-0610.
go back to reference Hayden, E. P., Hankin, B. L., Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Jordan, P. L., Dozois, D. J. A., Singh, S. M., Olino, T. M., & Badanes, L. S. (2014). Parental depression and child cognitive vulnerability predict children’s cortisol reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4pt2), 1445–1460. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414001138. Hayden, E. P., Hankin, B. L., Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Jordan, P. L., Dozois, D. J. A., Singh, S. M., Olino, T. M., & Badanes, L. S. (2014). Parental depression and child cognitive vulnerability predict children’s cortisol reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4pt2), 1445–1460. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S095457941400113​8.
go back to reference Hayden, E. P., Olino, T. M., Mackrell, S. V. M., Jordan, P. L., Desjardins, J., & Katsiroumbas, P. (2013). Cognitive vulnerability to depression during middle childhood: Stability and associations with maternal affective styles and parental depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), 892–897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.016. Hayden, E. P., Olino, T. M., Mackrell, S. V. M., Jordan, P. L., Desjardins, J., & Katsiroumbas, P. (2013). Cognitive vulnerability to depression during middle childhood: Stability and associations with maternal affective styles and parental depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), 892–897. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​paid.​2013.​07.​016.
go back to reference Hart, R. P., & Carroll, C. E. (2014). DICTION 7.0 text analysis program – help manual. Digitext. Hart, R. P., & Carroll, C. E. (2014). DICTION 7.0 text analysis program – help manual. Digitext.
go back to reference Kahn, J. H., Tobin, R. M., Massey, A. E., & Anderson, J. A. (2007). Measuring emotional expression with the linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. The American Journal of Psychology, 120(2), 263–286.CrossRefPubMed Kahn, J. H., Tobin, R. M., Massey, A. E., & Anderson, J. A. (2007). Measuring emotional expression with the linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. The American Journal of Psychology, 120(2), 263–286.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kotelnikova, Y., Mackrell, S. V. M., Jordan, P. L., & Hayden, E. P. (2015). Longitudinal associations between reactive and regulatory temperament traits and depressive symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(5), 775–786. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.893517. Kotelnikova, Y., Mackrell, S. V. M., Jordan, P. L., & Hayden, E. P. (2015). Longitudinal associations between reactive and regulatory temperament traits and depressive symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(5), 775–786. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​15374416.​2014.​893517.
go back to reference Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Kotelnikova, Y., Kryski, K. R., Jordan, P. L., Singh, S. M., & Hayden, E. P. (2014). Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(1), 106–116. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035612. Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Kotelnikova, Y., Kryski, K. R., Jordan, P. L., Singh, S. M., & Hayden, E. P. (2014). Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(1), 106–116. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0035612.
go back to reference Paget, K. D., & Reynolds, C. R. (1984). Dimensions, levels and reliabilities on the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale with learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(3), 137–141.CrossRefPubMed Paget, K. D., & Reynolds, C. R. (1984). Dimensions, levels and reliabilities on the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale with learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(3), 137–141.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pennebaker, J. W., Francis, M. E., & Booth, R. J. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC 2001. Mahway: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 71(2001), 2001. Pennebaker, J. W., Francis, M. E., & Booth, R. J. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC 2001. Mahway: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 71(2001), 2001.
go back to reference Rodriguez, E. M., Dunn, M. J., Zuckerman, T., Hughart, L., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C. A., Saylor, M., Schuele, C. M., & Compas, B. E. (2013). Mother-child communication and maternal depressive symptoms in families of children with cancer: Integrating macro and micro levels of analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(7), 732–743. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jst018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Rodriguez, E. M., Dunn, M. J., Zuckerman, T., Hughart, L., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C. A., Saylor, M., Schuele, C. M., & Compas, B. E. (2013). Mother-child communication and maternal depressive symptoms in families of children with cancer: Integrating macro and micro levels of analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(7), 732–743. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1093/​jpepsy/​jst018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Saslow, L. R., McCoy, S., van der Löwe, I., Cosley, B., Vartan, A., Oveis, C., Keltner, D., Moskowitz, J. T., & Epel, E. S. (2014). Speaking under pressure: Low linguistic complexity is linked to high physiological and emotional stress reactivity: Speaking under pressure. Psychophysiology, 51(3), 257–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12171.CrossRefPubMed Saslow, L. R., McCoy, S., van der Löwe, I., Cosley, B., Vartan, A., Oveis, C., Keltner, D., Moskowitz, J. T., & Epel, E. S. (2014). Speaking under pressure: Low linguistic complexity is linked to high physiological and emotional stress reactivity: Speaking under pressure. Psychophysiology, 51(3), 257–266. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​psyp.​12171.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Statistics Canada (July 24, 2008). Community Profiles: London Ontario (2006 Census Data) (Table) Statistics Canada Online Catalogue no 92-591-XWE. Statistics Canada (July 24, 2008). Community Profiles: London Ontario (2006 Census Data) (Table) Statistics Canada Online Catalogue no 92-591-XWE.
go back to reference Stone, P. J., Dunphy, D. C., & Smith, M. S. (1966). The general inquirer: A computer approach to content analysis. M.I.T. Stone, P. J., Dunphy, D. C., & Smith, M. S. (1966). The general inquirer: A computer approach to content analysis. M.I.T.
go back to reference Tølbøll, K. B. (2019). Linguistic features in depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Lan-guage. Works-Sprogvidenskabeligt Studentertidsskrift, 4(2), 39–59. Tølbøll, K. B. (2019). Linguistic features in depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Lan-guage. Works-Sprogvidenskabeligt Studentertidsskrift, 4(2), 39–59.
go back to reference Vine, V., Hilt, L. M., Marroquín, B., & Gilbert, K. E. (2019). Socially oriented thinking and the biological stress response: Thinking of friends and family predicts trajectories of salivary cortisol decline. Psychophysiology, 56(12). https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13461. Vine, V., Hilt, L. M., Marroquín, B., & Gilbert, K. E. (2019). Socially oriented thinking and the biological stress response: Thinking of friends and family predicts trajectories of salivary cortisol decline. Psychophysiology, 56(12). https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​psyp.​13461.
Metagegevens
Titel
Automated Coding of Children’s Spoken Language is Associated with Internalizing Symptoms and Cortisol Reactivity to Stress
Auteurs
Bianca C. Iddiols
Andrew R. Daoust
Jennifer N. Mullen
Yuliya Kotelnikova
Elizabeth P. Hayden
Publicatiedatum
14-02-2024
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 2/2024
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-024-10124-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 2/2024

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 2/2024 Naar de uitgave