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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1/2017

02-04-2016

Aroused at Home: Basic Autonomic Regulation during Orthostatic and Physical Activation is Altered in Children with Social Anxiety Disorder

Auteurs: Julia Asbrand, Jens Blechert, Kai Nitschke, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Julian Schmitz

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 1/2017

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Abstract

Previous research has documented altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to laboratory-based social stress tasks in children with social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is unclear, however, whether these alterations are caused by the unfamiliar and possibly threatening lab environment or whether they generalize to other, more representative contexts. Sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functioning was assessed in the home (minimizing environmental threat) during a supine baseline phase and two physical activation phases (orthostatic stress, stair stepping) in children (9–13 years) with SAD (n = 27) and healthy control children (n = 27). Relative to controls, children with SAD showed tonic autonomic hyperarousal as indicated by higher heart rate and electrodermal activity during the supine baseline phase. Further, there was evidence for stronger cardiac and vascular sympathetic reactivity (T-wave amplitude, pulse wave transit time) to moderate physical activation in children with SAD. Higher autonomic arousal during rest was related to measures of trait social anxiety and general psychopathology. Groups did not differ on parasympathetic parameters. Our results extend previous laboratory findings and provide the first evidence for alterations in children with SAD during basal autonomic regulation and in the absence of explicit social evaluative threat. They may further help to clarify conflicting study results from previous laboratory studies. The findings underline the importance of psychophysiological assessment using different environments and tasks to elucidate the physiological bases of SAD.
Voetnoten
1
Children with and without comorbid disorders did not differ on any outcome measure, Fs < 1.67, ps > .203. Therefore, all children with SAD were included in one group.
 
2
A more recent version was published in German in 2014. However, since data collection started before this point, the earlier version was used here.
 
3
In contrast to the ADIS-C, the Kinder-DIPS uses a completely parallel version in both child and parent. While the ADIS-C relies on parental information concerning, for example, ADHD, the Kinder-DIPS also takes the child’s report into consideration.
 
4
Outliers (z-values of ≥ ± 3) were excluded in the respective statistical analyses (HR (1 SAD), SNS (2 HC, 1 SAD), PNS (4 HC, 3 SAD), RESP (1 HC, 2 SAD)).
 
5
In line with previous research (Kudielka et al. 2004; Schmitz et al. 2013), BMI, gender and age were examined as covariates on all measures. Since they did not interact with Group, they were omitted (ps > .151) in further analysis.
 
6
BMI, gender and age were examined as possible covariates on all measures (Kudielka et al. 2004). Since they did not interact with Group in any analysis (ps > .151), they were omitted for the sake of clarity.
 
7
Significant main effects of Phase were found throughout analyses on all measures (HR; SNS; PNS) but as such are only relevant as a manipulation check for reactivity to the tasks (p < .05) and therefore have been left out in further presentation of results.
 
8
Negative values are caused by use of IBI in analysis.
 
9
Results for parasympathetic activity remained unchanged when alternatively calculating complex demodulation or transfer function RSA as parasympathetic indices (see Grossman and Taylor 2007).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Aroused at Home: Basic Autonomic Regulation during Orthostatic and Physical Activation is Altered in Children with Social Anxiety Disorder
Auteurs
Julia Asbrand
Jens Blechert
Kai Nitschke
Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
Julian Schmitz
Publicatiedatum
02-04-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 1/2017
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0147-7

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