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01-12-2018 | Research | Uitgave 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2018

Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2018
Jade M. Tan, Kay M. Crossley, Bill Vicenzino, Hylton B. Menz, Shannon E. Munteanu, Natalie J. Collins



Age-related changes in midfoot mobility have the potential to influence success with foot orthoses intervention in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to determine whether older people with PFP demonstrate less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP.


One hundred ninety four participants (113 (58%) women, age 32 ± 7 years, BMI 25 ± 4.9 kg/m2) with PFP (≥ 6 weeks duration) were included, with foot mobility quantified using reliable and valid methods. K-means cluster analysis classified participants into three homogenous groups based on age. After cluster formation, univariate analyses of co-variance (covariates: sex, weight) were used to compare midfoot height mobility, midfoot width mobility, and foot mobility magnitude between age groups (significance level 0.05).


Cluster analysis revealed three distinct age groups: 18–29 years (n = 70); 30–39 years (n = 101); and 40–50 years (n = 23). There was a significant main effect for age for midfoot height mobility (p < 0.001) and foot mobility magnitude (p = 0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed that midfoot height mobility differed across all three groups (moderate to large effect sizes), and that foot mobility magnitude was significantly less in those aged 40–50 years compared to those aged 18–25 years (moderate effect size). There were no significant main effects for age for midfoot width mobility (p > 0.05).


Individuals with PFP aged 40–50 years have less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. These findings may have implications for evaluation and treatment of older individuals with PFP.

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