Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Mindfulness and meditation (MM) are increasingly used in trauma treatment, yet there is little research about therapist qualifications and clinical applications of these practices. We surveyed trauma therapists (N = 116) about their clinical uses, training, and personal practice of MM. Most respondents reported use of MM in trauma therapy, primarily MM-related imagery and breathing exercises and mindfulness in session or daily life. Almost a third used mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or mindfulness-based relapse prevention. Across all respondents, 66 % were trained by a mental health (MH) professional, 16 % were trained exclusively by a spiritual teacher, and 18 % received no training. On average, therapists used four types of MM. Less than half maintained a personal meditation practice and only 9 % reported practicing daily meditation. Therapists who were trained by a MH professional were more likely to integrate MM into trauma psychotherapy; those who were trained by a spiritual teacher were more likely to teach clients to use MM between sessions and reported more personal practice of MM. Results indicate divergence from standard recommendations for therapist personal practice and professional training in manualized uses; however, there is little guidance about requisite training and personal practice to support individualized uses of MM such as breathing exercises and imagery. Further research should address relationships of therapist training and personal practice to clinical outcomes in MM-informed trauma therapy.
Benson, H., & Klipper, M. Z. (2000). The relaxation response. New York, NY: HarperTorch.
Bhatnagar, R., Phelps, L., Rietz, K., Juergens, T., Russell, D., Miller, N., & Ahearn, E. (2013). The effects of mindfulness training on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and heart rate variability in combat veterans. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19, 860–861. CrossRefPubMed
Brooks, J. S., & Scarano, T. (1985). Transcendental meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(3), 212–215. CrossRef
Forem, J. (2012). Transcendental meditation: the essential teaching of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. New York, NY: Hay House, Inc.
Grepmair, L., Mitterlehner, F., Loew, T., Bachler, E., Rother, W., & Nickel, M. (2007). Promoting mindfulness in psychotherapists in training influences the treatment results of their patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 332–338. doi: 10.1159/000107560. CrossRefPubMed
Hayes, S. C., & Strosahl, K. D. (2010). A practical guide to acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Springer US.
Hechanova, M. R. M., Waelde, L. C., Docena, P. S., Alampay, L. P., Alianan, A. S., Flores, M. J. B., ... Melgar, M. I. E. (2015b). The development and initial evaluation of Katatagan: a resilience intervention for Filipino disaster survivors. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 48, 105–131.
Iwanicki, S., McCloskey, W., & Lauterbach, D. (2014). Self-care and professional quality of life. Manuscript in preparation.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and Illness: Fifteenth (anniversaryth ed.). New York, NY, US: Delta Trade Paperback/Bantam Dell.
Kabat-Zinn, J., Santorelli, S. F., Blacker, M., Brantley, J., Meleo-Meyer, F., Grossman, P, Stahl, R. (2016). Training teachers to deliver mindfulness-based stress reduction: Principles and standards. Retrieved from http://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/training/principles--standards
Kearney, D. J., McDermott, K., Malte, C., Martinez, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2013b). Effects of participation in a mindfulness program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 14–27. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21911. CrossRefPubMed
Kimbrough, E., Magyari, T., Langenberg, P., Chesney, M., & Berman, B. (2010). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 17–33. PubMed
King, A. P., Erickson, T. M., Giardino, N. D., Favorite, T., Rauch, S. A. M., Robinson, E., & Liberzon, I. (2013). A pilot study of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Depression and Anxiety, 30(7), 638–645. doi: 10.1002/da.22104. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.
Martin, J. R. (1997). Mindfulness: a proposed common factor. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 7, 291–312. CrossRef
Niles, B. L., Klunk-Gillis, J., Ryngala, D. J., Silberbogen, A. K., Paysnick, A., & Wolf, E. J. (2012). Comparing mindfulness and psychoeducation treatments for combat-related PTSD using a telehealth approach. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(5), 538–547. doi: 10.1037/a0026161. CrossRef
Ospina, M. B., Bond, K., Karkhaneh, M., Tjosvold, L., Vandermeer, B., Liang, Y., & Klassen, T. P. (2007). Meditation practices for health: State of the research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Pope, K. S., & Vasquez, M. J. T. (2011). Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: a practical guide (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ, US: Wiley. Retrieved fromhttps://paloaltou.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2011-12960-000.
Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.
UK Network of Mindfulness-Based Teacher Trainers. (2010). Good practice guidance for teaching mindfulness-based courses. Retrieved from http://www.bangor.ac.uk/mindfulness/documents/MBA teacherGPG-Feb 10.pdf
VA Office of Research and Development. (2011). PTSD and Complementary Alternative Medicine - Research Opportunities. Retrieved from http://www.research.va.gov/news/research_highlights/ptsd-cam-051711.cfm
Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015). There is only one mindfulness: Why science and Buddhism need to work together. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y
Waelde, L. C. (2015). Mindfulness and meditation for trauma-related dissociation. In V. Follette, J. Briere, J. Hopper, D. Rozelle, & D. Rome (Eds.), Contemplative methods in trauma treatment: integrating mindfulness and other approaches (pp. 301–313). New York: Guildford Press.
Williams, J. M. G., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Brennan, K., Duggan, D. S., Fennell, M. J. V., & Russell, I. T. (2014). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for preventing relapse in recurrent depression: a randomized dismantling trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 275–286. doi: 10.1037/a0035036. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
- Trauma Therapists’ Clinical Applications, Training, and Personal Practice of Mindfulness and Meditation
Lynn C. Waelde
Jason M. Thompson
- Springer US