Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1757-1146-7-31) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
BKY and DRB were fully involved in the preparation and completion of the study procedures. BKY and DRB were responsible for the preparation and review of the manuscript prior to submission for publication. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The use of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges in cycling are largely based on theoretical benefits and anecdotal evidence. This review aimed to systematically collect all published research on this topic, critically evaluate the methods and summarise the findings.
Study inclusion criteria were: all empirical studies that evaluated the effects of foot orthoses or in-shoe wedges on cycling; outcome measures that investigated physiological parameters, kinematics and kinetics of the lower limb, and power; and, published in English. Studies were located by data-base searching (Medline, CINAHL, Embase and SPORTDiscus) and hand-searching in February 2014. Selected studies were assessed for methodological quality using a modified Quality Index. Data were synthesised descriptively. Meta-analysis was not performed as the included studies were not sufficiently homogeneous to provide a meaningful summary.
Six studies were identified as meeting the eligibility criteria. All studies were laboratory-based and used a repeated measures design. The quality of the studies varied, with Quality Index scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 14. Five studies investigated foot orthoses and one studied in-shoe wedges. Foot orthoses were found to increase contact area in the midfoot, peak pressures under the hallux and were perceived to provide better arch support, compared to a control. With respect to physiological parameters, contrasting findings have been reported regarding the effect foot orthoses have on oxygen consumption. Further, foot orthoses have been shown to not provide effects on lower limb kinematics and perceived comfort. Both foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges have been shown to provide no effect on power.
In general, there is limited high-quality research on the effects foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges provide during cycling. At present, there is some evidence that during cycling foot orthoses: increase contact area under the foot and increase plantar pressures under the hallux, but provide no gains in power. Based on available evidence, no definitive conclusions can be made about the effects foot orthoses have on lower limb kinematics and oxygen consumption, and the effect in-shoe wedges have on power during cycling. Future well-designed studies on this topic are warranted.
So RCH, Ng JKF, Ng GYF: Muscle recruitment pattern in cycling: a review. Phys Ther Sport. 2005, 6: 89-96. 10.1016/j.ptsp.2005.02.004. CrossRef
Alquist LE, Basset DR, Sufit R, Nagle FJ, Thomas DP: The effects of pedaling frequency on glycogen depletion rates in type 1 and 2 quadriceps muscle fibers during submaximal cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1992, 65: 360-364. 10.1007/BF00868141. CrossRef
Dinsdale NJ, Williams AG: Can forefoot varus wedges enhance anaerobic cycling performance in untrained males with forefoot varus?. J Sport Sci Pract Aspect. 2010, 7: 5-10.
Callaghan M: Lower body problems and injury in cycling. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2005, 9: 226-236. 10.1016/j.jbmt.2005.01.007. CrossRef
Koch M, Frohlich M, Emrich E, Urhausen A: The impact of carbon insoles in cycling on performance in the Wingate anaerobic test. J Sci Cycling. 2013, 2: 2-5.
Zyl E, Schwellnus MP, Noakes TD: A review of the etiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain in cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 2001, 2: 1-34.
Schwellnus MP, Sole G, Milligan J, Van Zyl E, Noakes TD: Biomechanical considerations in the aetiology and management of patellofemoral pain in cyclists. Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport Program and Abstract: 28-31 October 1996. 1996, Australian Capital Territory: Sports Medicine Australia, 320-321.
Schmidt A: The impact of individually fitted carbon insoles on sprint performance in competitive cycling. 16th Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Sciences Book of Abstracts; 6-9 July 2011. Edited by: Cable NT, George K. 2011, Liverpool
Australian Cycling Participation. 2013, ( https://www.onlinepublications.austroads.com.au/items/AP-C91-13)
Cycling Australia Review. 2013, ( http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cycling-australia-review-index/$file/cycling-australia-review-20130111.pdf)
Bousie JA, Blanch P, McPoil TG, Vicenzino B: Contoured in-shoe foot orthoses increase mid-foot plantar contact area when compared with a flat insert during cycling. J Sci Med Sports. 2013, 16: 60-64. 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.04.006. CrossRef
Anderson JC, Sockler JM: Effects of orthoses on selected physiologic parameters in cycling. Sports Med. 1990, 80: 161-166.
Cruz CF, Bankoff AD: Electromyography in cycling: difference between clipless pedal and toe clip pedal. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2001, 4: 247-252.
Jarboe NE, Quesada PM: The effects of cycling shoe stiffness on forefoot pressure. Foot Ankle Int. 2003, 24: 784-788. PubMed
Hintzy F, Belli A, Rouillon JD: Effet de l’utilisation de pédales automatiques sur les caractéristiques mécaniques mesurées lors de sprints sur cycloergomètre non isocinétique. Sci Sports. 1999, 14: 137-144. 10.1016/S0765-1597(99)80055-0. CrossRef
Del Coso J, Mora-Rodriguez R: Validity of cycling peak power as measured by a short-sprint test versus the Wingate anaerobic test. J Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006, 31: 186-189. 10.1139/h05-026. CrossRef
Bertucci WM, Grappe F, Crequy S: Original characteristics of a new cycle ergometer. Sports Eng. 2011, 13: 171-179. 10.1007/s12283-011-0063-6. CrossRef
Dickson TB: Preventing overuse cycling injuries. Phys Sportsmed. 1985, 13: 116-119.
Joganich TG, Martin PE: Influence of othotics on lower extremity function in cycling. J Biomech. 1992, 25: 678- CrossRef
Yang S: The efficacy of arch support insoles in increasing the cycling performance and injury prevention. Footwear Sci. 2013, 5: S107-S109. 10.1080/19424280.2013.799586. CrossRef
- The effect of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges during cycling: a systematic review
Boon K Yeo
Daniel R Bonanno
- BioMed Central