Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The number of research studies on clinical aspects of mindfulness and neural correlates of meditation practices involving mindfulness is fast growing. But, what is understood as mindfulness and goals of the practice differ across traditions and studies. Clarity in conceptions and components of mindfulness is essential for interpretation of findings across studies and better understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this paper, I outline a working model for exploring mechanisms and effects of different types of mindfulness. The focus is on five dimensions of mindfulness: (1) intention and context of mindfulness practice, (2) bare attention, (3) attentional control, (4) wholesome emotions, and (5) ethical discernment. Meta-awareness and insight, as two additional factors associated with mindfulness, are also discussed. I explore the role these dimensions and factors play in the conception of mindfulness used in the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and in the traditional Buddhist context. Importantly, it is considered how the dimensions and factors of mindfulness may map onto distinct cognitive processes and neural substrates, and what the possible links between them are. This leads to a variety of research hypotheses and questions about mechanisms and effects of mindfulness. I suggest how refinement of the concept of mindfulness and sensitivity to differences across conceptions of mindfulness can lead to development of novel condition- and individual-specific treatment approaches based on meditation, and advance neuroscientific research on brain plasticity associated with well-being.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Analayo, V. (2006). Satipatthana: The direct path to realization. Birmingham, UK: Windhorse Publications.
Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness practice as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and practice, 10, 125–143. CrossRef
Barnhofer, T., Chittka, T., Nightingale, H., Visser, C., & Crane, C. (2010). State effects of two forms of meditation on prefrontal EEG asymmetry in previously depressed individuals. Mindfulness, 1, 21–27. CrossRef
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241. CrossRef
Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Shaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 11483–11488. CrossRef
Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.
Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucorn, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35, 471–494. CrossRef
Dalai Lama, H. H. (2000). Dzogchen. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.
Frewen, P. A., Evans, E. M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D. J. A., & Partridge, K. (2008). Letting Go: Mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy Research, 32, 758–774. CrossRef
Gilpin, R. (2008). The use of Theravada Buddhist practices and perspectives in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Contemporary Buddhism: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9, 227–251. CrossRef
Ivanovski, B., & Malhi, G. S. (2007). The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 19, 76–91. CrossRef
Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109–119. CrossRef
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe of living. New York: Delacorte Press.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and practice, 10, 144–156. CrossRef
Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R., & Sellers, W. (1987). Four year follow-up of a meditation-based program for the self-regulation of chronic pain: Treatment outcomes and compliance. Clinical Journal of Pain, 2, 159–173. CrossRef
Kristeller, J. L., Baer, R. A., & Quillian-Wolever, R. (2006). Mindfulenss-based approaches to eating disorders. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches (pp. 75–93). Burlington, MA: Academic Press. CrossRef
Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Rawlings, N. B., Ricard, M., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 16369–16373. CrossRef
Lutz, A., Dunne, J. P., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Meditation and the neuroscience of consciousness: An introduction. In P. D. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, & E. Thompson (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, D. W. (2002). Buddhism: Introducing the Buddhist experience. New York: Oxford University Press.
Olendzki, A. (2008). The real practice of mindfulness. Buddhadharma: The practitioner's quarterly. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from http://www.thebuddhadharma.com/issues/2008/fall/mindfulness.php.
Padmasambhava. (1998). Natural liberation. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.
Raichle, M. E., MacLeod, A. M., Snyder, A. Z., Powers, W. J., Gusnard, D. A., & Shulman, G. L. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 676–682. CrossRef
Ridderinkhof, K. R., van den Wildenberg, W. P. M., Segalowitz, S. J., & Carter, C. S. (2004). Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: The role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning. Brain and Cognition, 56, 129–140. CrossRefPubMed
Rosch, E. (2007). More than mindfulness: When you have a tiger by the tail, let it eat you. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 258–264.
Samuelson, M., Carmody, J., Kabat-Zinn, J., & Bratt, M. A. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Massachusetts correctional facilities. The Prison Journal, 87, 254–268. CrossRef
Siegel, R. D., Germer, C. K., & Olendzki, A. (2008). Mindfulness: What is it? Where did it come from? In In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness. New York: Springer.
Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Breischar, L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., et al. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biology, 5, 1228–1235. CrossRef
Sogyal Rinpoche (1992). The Tibetan book of living and dying. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
Thera, N. (1962). The heart of Buddhist meditation: A handbook of mental training based on the Buddha's way of mindfulness. London: Rider & Co.
Thera, N. (1998). Abhidhamma studies: Buddhist explorations of consciousness and time (4th ed.). Wisdom Publications: Boston, MA.
Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1991). The embodied mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Wallace, B. A. (1999a). The Buddhist tradition of Samatha: Methods for refining and examining consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 175–187.
Wallace, B. A. (1999b). The four immeasurables: Cultivating a boundless heart. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.
Wells, A. (2002). GAD, metacognition, and mindfulness: An information processing analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 95–100. CrossRef
- Kinds and Dimensions of Mindfulness: Why it is Important to Distinguish Them
- Springer US