Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander hoofdstuk

1997 | OriginalPaper | Hoofdstuk

4. Forefoot

Auteurs : MD Richard A. Marder, MD George J. Lian

Gepubliceerd in: Sports Injuries of the Ankle and Foot

Uitgeverij: Springer New York

share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The great toe and its metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint are affected by numerous injuries, that in turn affect athletic performance. During the last phase of stance in the gait cycle, the body’s weight is transferred forward onto the ball of the foot and the toes. From heel rise to toe-off during barefoot gait, the first MTP joint dorsiflexes with the joint subjected to a force 0.8 times body weight (McBride et al., 1991). Progressively decreasing forces are measured at the second through fifth MTP joints. First MTP joint forces are increased severalfold during athletic activities that involve running and jumping. The crouched position of a baseball catcher and the en pointe position of a ballet dancer are examples of high stress that occurs at the first MTP joint during athletics (Teitz et al., 1985). Such stress can lead to both acute and chronic injuries of the great toe.
Literatuur
go back to reference Barbari SG, Brevig K: Correction of clawtoes by the Girdlestone-Taylor flexor-extensor transfer procedure. Foot Ankle 5:67–73, 1984 PubMedCrossRef Barbari SG, Brevig K: Correction of clawtoes by the Girdlestone-Taylor flexor-extensor transfer procedure. Foot Ankle 5:67–73, 1984 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baxter DE: Treatment of bunion deformity in the athlete. Orthop Clin North Am 25:33–39, 1994 PubMed Baxter DE: Treatment of bunion deformity in the athlete. Orthop Clin North Am 25:33–39, 1994 PubMed
go back to reference Braddock G: Experimental epiphyseal injury and Freiberg’s disease. Bone Joint Surg Br 41:154–159, 1959 Braddock G: Experimental epiphyseal injury and Freiberg’s disease. Bone Joint Surg Br 41:154–159, 1959
go back to reference Clanton TO, Butler JE, Eggert A: Injuries to the metatarsophalangeal joints in athletes. Foot Ankle 7:162–176, 1986 PubMedCrossRef Clanton TO, Butler JE, Eggert A: Injuries to the metatarsophalangeal joints in athletes. Foot Ankle 7:162–176, 1986 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Coker TP, Arnold JA, Weber DL: Traumatic lesions of the metatarsophalangeal joint in the great toe in athletes. Am J Sports Med 6:326–334, 1978 PubMedCrossRef Coker TP, Arnold JA, Weber DL: Traumatic lesions of the metatarsophalangeal joint in the great toe in athletes. Am J Sports Med 6:326–334, 1978 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Coughlin MJ: Juvenile bunions In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 467–543, St. Louis, Mosby, 1993a Coughlin MJ: Juvenile bunions In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 467–543, St. Louis, Mosby, 1993a
go back to reference Couglin MJ: Operative repair of the mallet toe deformity. Foot Ankle 16:109–116, 1995 CrossRef Couglin MJ: Operative repair of the mallet toe deformity. Foot Ankle 16:109–116, 1995 CrossRef
go back to reference Coughlin MJ: Second metatarsophalangeal joint instability in the athlete. Foot Ankle 14:309–319, 1993b PubMedCrossRef Coughlin MJ: Second metatarsophalangeal joint instability in the athlete. Foot Ankle 14:309–319, 1993b PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Coughlin MJ: Subluxation and dislocation of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. Orthop Clin North Am 20:535–551, 1989 PubMed Coughlin MJ: Subluxation and dislocation of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. Orthop Clin North Am 20:535–551, 1989 PubMed
go back to reference Coughlin MJ: Treatment of bunionette deformity with longitudinal diaphyseal osteotomy with distal soft tissue repair. Foot Ankle 11:195–203, 1991 PubMedCrossRef Coughlin MJ: Treatment of bunionette deformity with longitudinal diaphyseal osteotomy with distal soft tissue repair. Foot Ankle 11:195–203, 1991 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Coughlin MJ, Mann RA: Lesser toe deformities. In Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle pp 341–412. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993 Coughlin MJ, Mann RA: Lesser toe deformities. In Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle pp 341–412. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993
go back to reference DeLee JC: Fractures and dislocations of the foot. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 1465–1703. St. Louis, Mosby,1993 DeLee JC: Fractures and dislocations of the foot. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 1465–1703. St. Louis, Mosby,1993
go back to reference Diebold PF, Bejjani FJ: Basal osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal with intermetatarsal pinning: a new approach to tailor’s bunion. Foot Ankle 8:40–45, 1987 PubMedCrossRef Diebold PF, Bejjani FJ: Basal osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal with intermetatarsal pinning: a new approach to tailor’s bunion. Foot Ankle 8:40–45, 1987 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dietzen CJ: Great toe sesamoid injuries in the athlete. Orthop Rev 19:966–972, 1990 PubMed Dietzen CJ: Great toe sesamoid injuries in the athlete. Orthop Rev 19:966–972, 1990 PubMed
go back to reference Douglas G, Rang, M: The role of trauma in the pathogenesis of the osteochondroses. Clin Orthop 158:28–34,1981 PubMed Douglas G, Rang, M: The role of trauma in the pathogenesis of the osteochondroses. Clin Orthop 158:28–34,1981 PubMed
go back to reference Einarsdottir H, Troell S, Wykman A: Hallux valgus in ballet dancers: a myth? Foot Ankle 16:92–94, 1995 PubMedCrossRef Einarsdottir H, Troell S, Wykman A: Hallux valgus in ballet dancers: a myth? Foot Ankle 16:92–94, 1995 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Elleby DH, Marcinko DE: Digital fractures and dislocations: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Podiatry 2:233–245, 1985 PubMed Elleby DH, Marcinko DE: Digital fractures and dislocations: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Podiatry 2:233–245, 1985 PubMed
go back to reference Fugate DS, Thomson JD, Christensen KP: An irreducible fracture-dislocation of the lesser toe: a case report. Foot Ankle 11:317–318,1991 PubMedCrossRef Fugate DS, Thomson JD, Christensen KP: An irreducible fracture-dislocation of the lesser toe: a case report. Foot Ankle 11:317–318,1991 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gauthier G, Elbaz R: Freiberg’s infraction: a subchondral bone fatigue fracture; a new surgical treatment. Clin Orthop 142:93–95,1979 PubMed Gauthier G, Elbaz R: Freiberg’s infraction: a subchondral bone fatigue fracture; a new surgical treatment. Clin Orthop 142:93–95,1979 PubMed
go back to reference Hattrup SJ, Johnson KA: Chevron osteotomy: analysis of factors in patients’ dissatisfaction. Foot Ankle 5:327–332, 1985 PubMedCrossRef Hattrup SJ, Johnson KA: Chevron osteotomy: analysis of factors in patients’ dissatisfaction. Foot Ankle 5:327–332, 1985 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hawkins BJ, Haddad RJ: Hallux rigidus. Clin Sports Med 7:37–49, 1988 PubMed Hawkins BJ, Haddad RJ: Hallux rigidus. Clin Sports Med 7:37–49, 1988 PubMed
go back to reference Helal B, Gibb P: Freiberg’s disease: A suggested pattern of management. Foot Ankle 8:94–102,1987 PubMedCrossRef Helal B, Gibb P: Freiberg’s disease: A suggested pattern of management. Foot Ankle 8:94–102,1987 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Holmes GB, Timmerman L: A quantitative assessment of the effects of metatarsal pads on plantar pressures. Foot Ankle 11:141–145, 1990 PubMedCrossRef Holmes GB, Timmerman L: A quantitative assessment of the effects of metatarsal pads on plantar pressures. Foot Ankle 11:141–145, 1990 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Howse J: Disorders of the great toe in dancers. Clin Sports Med 2:499–505, 1983 PubMed Howse J: Disorders of the great toe in dancers. Clin Sports Med 2:499–505, 1983 PubMed
go back to reference Irvin CM, Witt, CS, Zielsdorf LM: Post-traumatic osteochondritis of the lateral sesamoid in active adolescents. J Foot Surg 24:219–221, 1985 PubMed Irvin CM, Witt, CS, Zielsdorf LM: Post-traumatic osteochondritis of the lateral sesamoid in active adolescents. J Foot Surg 24:219–221, 1985 PubMed
go back to reference Jahss MJ: Traumatic dislocations of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Foot Ankle 1:15–21, 1980 PubMedCrossRef Jahss MJ: Traumatic dislocations of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Foot Ankle 1:15–21, 1980 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Johnston RB, Smith J, Daniels T: The plantar plate of the lesser toes: an anatomical study in human cadavers. Foot Ankle 15:276–282, 1994 PubMedCrossRef Johnston RB, Smith J, Daniels T: The plantar plate of the lesser toes: an anatomical study in human cadavers. Foot Ankle 15:276–282, 1994 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jones, KJ, Feiwell LA, Freedman EL, Cracchiolo A: The effect of chevron osteotomy with lateral capsular release on the blood supply to the first metatarsal head. J Bone Joint Surg Am 77:197–204, 1995 PubMed Jones, KJ, Feiwell LA, Freedman EL, Cracchiolo A: The effect of chevron osteotomy with lateral capsular release on the blood supply to the first metatarsal head. J Bone Joint Surg Am 77:197–204, 1995 PubMed
go back to reference Katcherian DA: Treatment of Freiberg’s disease. Orthop Clin North Am 25:69–81, 994 Katcherian DA: Treatment of Freiberg’s disease. Orthop Clin North Am 25:69–81, 994
go back to reference Kinnard P, Lirette R: Dorsiflexion osteotomy in Freiberg’s disease. Foot Ankle 9:226–231, 1989 PubMedCrossRef Kinnard P, Lirette R: Dorsiflexion osteotomy in Freiberg’s disease. Foot Ankle 9:226–231, 1989 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kitaoka HB, Franco MG, Weaver AL, Ilstrup DM: Simple bunionectomy with medial capsulorrhaphy. Foot Ankle 12:86–91, 1991 PubMedCrossRef Kitaoka HB, Franco MG, Weaver AL, Ilstrup DM: Simple bunionectomy with medial capsulorrhaphy. Foot Ankle 12:86–91, 1991 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kitaoka HB, Holiday AD, Campbell DC: Distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy for bunionette. Foot Ankle 12:80–85, 1991 PubMedCrossRef Kitaoka HB, Holiday AD, Campbell DC: Distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy for bunionette. Foot Ankle 12:80–85, 1991 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kitaoka HB, Holiday, AD: Lateral condylar resection for bunionette. Clin Orthop 278:183–192, 1992 PubMed Kitaoka HB, Holiday, AD: Lateral condylar resection for bunionette. Clin Orthop 278:183–192, 1992 PubMed
go back to reference Kitaoka HB, Leventen EO: Medial displacement metatarsal osteotomy for treatment of painful bunionette. Clin Orthop 243:172–179, 1989 PubMed Kitaoka HB, Leventen EO: Medial displacement metatarsal osteotomy for treatment of painful bunionette. Clin Orthop 243:172–179, 1989 PubMed
go back to reference Kliman ME, Gross E, Pritzker KPH, Greyson ND: Osteochondritis of the hallux sesamoid bones. Foot Ankle 3:220–223, 1983 PubMedCrossRef Kliman ME, Gross E, Pritzker KPH, Greyson ND: Osteochondritis of the hallux sesamoid bones. Foot Ankle 3:220–223, 1983 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kym MR, Worsing RA: Compartment syndrome in the foot after an inversion injury to the ankle. Bone Joint Surg Am 72:138–139, 1990 Kym MR, Worsing RA: Compartment syndrome in the foot after an inversion injury to the ankle. Bone Joint Surg Am 72:138–139, 1990
go back to reference Lavery LA, Harkless LB: The interpositional athroplasty procedure in treatment of degenerative arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. J Foot Surg 31:590–594, 1992 PubMed Lavery LA, Harkless LB: The interpositional athroplasty procedure in treatment of degenerative arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. J Foot Surg 31:590–594, 1992 PubMed
go back to reference Leventen EO: Sesamoid disorders and treatment: an update. Clin Orthop 269:236–240, 1991 PubMed Leventen EO: Sesamoid disorders and treatment: an update. Clin Orthop 269:236–240, 1991 PubMed
go back to reference Lewis AG, DeLee JC: Type I complex dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, reduction through a dorsal approach. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66:1120–1123, 1984 PubMed Lewis AG, DeLee JC: Type I complex dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, reduction through a dorsal approach. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66:1120–1123, 1984 PubMed
go back to reference Lillich JS, Baxter DE: Bunionectomies and related surgery in the elite female middle-distance and marathon runner. Am J Sports Med 14:491–493, 1986 PubMedCrossRef Lillich JS, Baxter DE: Bunionectomies and related surgery in the elite female middle-distance and marathon runner. Am J Sports Med 14:491–493, 1986 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lokiec F, Siev-ner I, Pritsch M: Chronic compartment syndrome of both feet. J Bone Joint Surg Br 75:178–179, 1991 Lokiec F, Siev-ner I, Pritsch M: Chronic compartment syndrome of both feet. J Bone Joint Surg Br 75:178–179, 1991
go back to reference Mann RA, Clanton TO: Hallux rigidus: treatment by cheilectomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 70:400–406, 1988 PubMed Mann RA, Clanton TO: Hallux rigidus: treatment by cheilectomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 70:400–406, 1988 PubMed
go back to reference Mann RA, Coughlin MJ: Adult hallux valgus. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 167–296. St Louis, Mosby, 1993a Mann RA, Coughlin MJ: Adult hallux valgus. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 167–296. St Louis, Mosby, 1993a
go back to reference Mann RA, Coughlin MJ: Keratotic disorders of the plantar skin. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 413–465. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993b Mann RA, Coughlin MJ: Keratotic disorders of the plantar skin. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 413–465. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993b
go back to reference McBride ID, Wyss UP, Cooke TD: First metatarsophalangeal joint reaction forces during high-heel gait. Foot Ankle 11:282–288, 1991 PubMedCrossRef McBride ID, Wyss UP, Cooke TD: First metatarsophalangeal joint reaction forces during high-heel gait. Foot Ankle 11:282–288, 1991 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McBryde AM: Sesamoid foot problems in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 7:51–60, 1988 PubMed McBryde AM: Sesamoid foot problems in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 7:51–60, 1988 PubMed
go back to reference McBryde AM, Anderson RB: Sesamoid foot problems in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 7:51–60, 1988 PubMed McBryde AM, Anderson RB: Sesamoid foot problems in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 7:51–60, 1988 PubMed
go back to reference McDermott EP: Basketball injuries of the foot and ankle. Clin Sports Med 12:373–393, 1993 PubMed McDermott EP: Basketball injuries of the foot and ankle. Clin Sports Med 12:373–393, 1993 PubMed
go back to reference McMaster M: The pathogenesis of hallux rigidus. J Bone Joint Surg Br 60:82–87, 1978 PubMed McMaster M: The pathogenesis of hallux rigidus. J Bone Joint Surg Br 60:82–87, 1978 PubMed
go back to reference Middleton DK, Johnson JE, Davies JF: Exertional compartment syndrome of bilateral feet: a case report. Foot Ankle 16:95–96, 1995 PubMedCrossRef Middleton DK, Johnson JE, Davies JF: Exertional compartment syndrome of bilateral feet: a case report. Foot Ankle 16:95–96, 1995 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Myerson, MS: Experimental decompression of the fascial compartments of the foot—the basis for fasciotomy in acute compartment syndromes. Foot Ankle 8:308–314, 1988 PubMedCrossRef Myerson, MS: Experimental decompression of the fascial compartments of the foot—the basis for fasciotomy in acute compartment syndromes. Foot Ankle 8:308–314, 1988 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Myerson MS: Management of compartment syndromes for the foot. Clin Orthop 271:239–248, 1991 PubMed Myerson MS: Management of compartment syndromes for the foot. Clin Orthop 271:239–248, 1991 PubMed
go back to reference Myerson MS: Soft-tissue trauma-acute and chronic management. In: Mann RA,Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 1367–1410. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993 Myerson MS: Soft-tissue trauma-acute and chronic management. In: Mann RA,Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 1367–1410. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993
go back to reference Myerson MS, Shereff MJ: The pathological anatomy of claw and hammer toes. J Bone Joint Surg 71:45–49, 1989 PubMed Myerson MS, Shereff MJ: The pathological anatomy of claw and hammer toes. J Bone Joint Surg 71:45–49, 1989 PubMed
go back to reference Newman RJ, Fitton JM: An evaluation of operative procedures in the treatment of hammer toe. Acta Orthop Scand 50:709–712, 1979 PubMedCrossRef Newman RJ, Fitton JM: An evaluation of operative procedures in the treatment of hammer toe. Acta Orthop Scand 50:709–712, 1979 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rau FD, Manoli A: Traumatic boutonniere deformity as a cause of actue hammer toe: a case report. Foot Ankle 11:231–232, 1991 PubMedCrossRef Rau FD, Manoli A: Traumatic boutonniere deformity as a cause of actue hammer toe: a case report. Foot Ankle 11:231–232, 1991 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rodeo SA, Warren, RF, O’Brien SJ, et al: Diastasis of bipartite sesamoids of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Foot Ankle 14:425–434, 1993 PubMedCrossRef Rodeo SA, Warren, RF, O’Brien SJ, et al: Diastasis of bipartite sesamoids of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Foot Ankle 14:425–434, 1993 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ross ERS, Menelaus MB: Open flexor tenotomy for hammer toes and curly toes in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 66:770–771, 1984 PubMed Ross ERS, Menelaus MB: Open flexor tenotomy for hammer toes and curly toes in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 66:770–771, 1984 PubMed
go back to reference Sammarco GJ: Turf toe. AAOS Instruct Course Lect 42:207–212, 1993 Sammarco GJ: Turf toe. AAOS Instruct Course Lect 42:207–212, 1993
go back to reference Sammaro GJ, Miller EH: Forefoot conditions in dancers: part II. Foot Ankle 3:93–98, 1982 CrossRef Sammaro GJ, Miller EH: Forefoot conditions in dancers: part II. Foot Ankle 3:93–98, 1982 CrossRef
go back to reference Sarafian SK: Anatomy of the foot and ankle: topographical, functional and descriptive. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1983 Sarafian SK: Anatomy of the foot and ankle: topographical, functional and descriptive. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1983
go back to reference Sarrafian SK, Topouzian LK: Anatomy and physiology of the extensor apparatus of the toes. J Bone Joint Surg Am 51:669–679, 1969 PubMed Sarrafian SK, Topouzian LK: Anatomy and physiology of the extensor apparatus of the toes. J Bone Joint Surg Am 51:669–679, 1969 PubMed
go back to reference Scranton PE, Rutkowski, R: Anatomic variations in the first ray. Part II] Disorders of the sesamoids. Clin Orthop 151:256–264, 1980 PubMed Scranton PE, Rutkowski, R: Anatomic variations in the first ray. Part II] Disorders of the sesamoids. Clin Orthop 151:256–264, 1980 PubMed
go back to reference Smillie I: Freiberg’s infraction (Koehler’s second disease). J Bone Joint Surg Br 39:580, 1957 Smillie I: Freiberg’s infraction (Koehler’s second disease). J Bone Joint Surg Br 39:580, 1957
go back to reference Smith JW, Amoczky SP, Hersh A: The intraosseous blood supply of the fifth metatarsal: implications for proximal fracture healing. Foot Ankle 13:143–152, 1992 PubMedCrossRef Smith JW, Amoczky SP, Hersh A: The intraosseous blood supply of the fifth metatarsal: implications for proximal fracture healing. Foot Ankle 13:143–152, 1992 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smith RW, Reischl SF: Metatarsophalangeal joint synovitis in athletes. Clin Sports Med 7:75–88, 1988 PubMed Smith RW, Reischl SF: Metatarsophalangeal joint synovitis in athletes. Clin Sports Med 7:75–88, 1988 PubMed
go back to reference Sobel M, Hashimoto J, Arnoczky SP, Bohne WHO: The microvasculature of the sesamoid complex: its clinical significance. Foot Ankle 13:59–363, 1992 Sobel M, Hashimoto J, Arnoczky SP, Bohne WHO: The microvasculature of the sesamoid complex: its clinical significance. Foot Ankle 13:59–363, 1992
go back to reference Teitz CC, Harrington RM, Wiley H: Pressure on the foot in pointe shoes. FootAnkle 5:216–221, 1985 Teitz CC, Harrington RM, Wiley H: Pressure on the foot in pointe shoes. FootAnkle 5:216–221, 1985
go back to reference Tewes DP, Fischer DA, Fritts HM, Guanche, CA: MRI findings of acute turf toe: a case report and review of anatomy. Clin Orthop 304:200–203,1994 PubMed Tewes DP, Fischer DA, Fritts HM, Guanche, CA: MRI findings of acute turf toe: a case report and review of anatomy. Clin Orthop 304:200–203,1994 PubMed
go back to reference Thompson F, Hamilton WG: Problems of the second metatarsophalangeal joint.Orthopaedics 10:83–89,1987 Thompson F, Hamilton WG: Problems of the second metatarsophalangeal joint.Orthopaedics 10:83–89,1987
go back to reference Thompson FM, Mann RA: Arthritides. In Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 615–671. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993 Thompson FM, Mann RA: Arthritides. In Mann RA, Coughlin MJ (eds): Surgery of the Foot and Ankle, pp 615–671. St. Louis, Mosby, 1993
go back to reference Van Hal ME, Keene JS, Clancy WG: Stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids. Am J Sports Med 10:122–128,1982 PubMedCrossRef Van Hal ME, Keene JS, Clancy WG: Stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids. Am J Sports Med 10:122–128,1982 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vittetoe DA, Saltzman CL, Krieg JC, Brown TD: Validity and reliability of the first distal metatarsal articular angle. Foot Ankle 15:541–547, 1994 PubMedCrossRef Vittetoe DA, Saltzman CL, Krieg JC, Brown TD: Validity and reliability of the first distal metatarsal articular angle. Foot Ankle 15:541–547, 1994 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weinstein RN, Insler HP: Irreducible proximal interphalangeal dislocation of the fourth toe: a case report. Foot Ankle 15:627–629,1994 PubMedCrossRef Weinstein RN, Insler HP: Irreducible proximal interphalangeal dislocation of the fourth toe: a case report. Foot Ankle 15:627–629,1994 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wiley J, Thurston P: Freiberg’s disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br 63:459, 1981 Wiley J, Thurston P: Freiberg’s disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br 63:459, 1981
go back to reference Wolfe J, Goodhart C: Irreduible dislocation of the great toe following a sports injury. Am J Sports Med 17:695–696, 1989 PubMedCrossRef Wolfe J, Goodhart C: Irreduible dislocation of the great toe following a sports injury. Am J Sports Med 17:695–696, 1989 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zimmer TJ, Johnson KA, Klassen RA: Treatment of hallux valgus in adolescents by the chevron osteotomy. Foot Ankle 9:190–193, 1989 PubMedCrossRef Zimmer TJ, Johnson KA, Klassen RA: Treatment of hallux valgus in adolescents by the chevron osteotomy. Foot Ankle 9:190–193, 1989 PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Forefoot
Auteurs
MD Richard A. Marder
MD George J. Lian
Copyright
1997
Uitgeverij
Springer New York
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1890-6_4