Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This observational study examined whether emotional expressivity and emotional flexibility differed between parent-child dyads with and without children with an anxiety disorder (AD). Effects of parents’ own AD on emotional expressivity and flexibility of dyads was also studied. The sample consisted of 128 referred children (59.4% girls) with an AD (8–18-year-olds) and both of their parents, and 44 matched non-AD children (63.6% girls) and both of their parents. Father-child and mother-child dyads were videotaped while discussing a conflict. Measures of dyadic emotional expressivity (positive and negative affect) and dyadic emotional flexibility (transitions, dispersion, average duration) were derived from these interactions using state space grid analysis. No differences existed in emotional expressivity of parent-child dyads with or without AD children, however both father-child and mother-child dyads with a child with an AD displayed less emotional flexibility during interactions than healthy controls. Mother-child dyads where both mother and child had AD showed more emotional expressivity and less emotional flexibility compared to mother-child dyads with only AD children and to dyads without AD. In particular, the inability to flexibly move in and out of different emotions distinguishes healthy dyads from non-healthy dyads. Targeting emotional flexibility of dyads with children with an AD, and also emotional expressivity of dyads when mother has an AD, might be a valuable goal for family-based intervention.
Bodden, D. H. M., Bögels, S. M., Nauta, M. H., De Haan, E., Ringrose, J., Nauta, M. H., & Appelboom-Geerts, K. C. M. M. J. (2008). Child versus family cognitive-behavioral therapy in clinically anxious youth: an efficacy and partial effectiveness study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1384–1394. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318189148e. CrossRef
Bögels, S. M., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. L. (2006). Family issues in child anxiety: attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 834–856. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.08.001.
Bögels, S. M., Bamelis, L., & van der Bruggen, C. (2008). Parental rearing as a function of parent’s own, partner’s, and child’s anxiety status: Fathers make the difference. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 522–538. doi: 10.1080/02699930801886706.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equation models with latent variables. New York: Wiley.
Branje, S., Laursen, B., & Collins, W. A. (2012). Parent-child communication during adolescence. In A. Vangelisti (Ed.), Routledge handbook of family communication (second ed., pp. 271–286). New York: Routledge.
DiNardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IVM: lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Fogel, A. (1993). Developing through relationships: origins of communication, self, and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Frijda, N. H. (2007). The laws of emotion. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Gross, J. J. (2007). Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: The Guilford Press.
Hannesdottir, D. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2007) The role of emotion regulation in the treatment of child anxiety disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 275–293. doi: 10.1007/s10567-007-0024-6.
Hinde, R. A. (1997). Relationships: a dialectical perspective. Hove: Psychology Press.
Hollenstein, T., Granic, I., Stoolmiller, M., & Snyder, J. (2004). Rigidity in parent-child interactions and the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior in early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 595–607. doi: 10.1023/B:JACP.0000047209.37650.41. CrossRefPubMed
Jabson, J., Venkatraman, S., Dishion, T. (2003). The Simple Affect Coding System. Unpublished, available from Child & Family Center, 195 West 12th Ave., Eugene, OR.
Lamey, A., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M., & Granic, I. (2004). GridWare (version 1.15a) [Computer Software].Retrieved from http://www.statespacegrids.org
Lunkenheimer, E. S., Olson, S. L., Hollenstein, T., Sameroff, A. J., & Winter, C. (2011). Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent–child coregulation and the development of child behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 577–591. doi: 10.1017/S095457941100006X. CrossRefPubMed
McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 155–172. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.002.
Robin, A. L., & Weiss, J. G. (1980). Criterion-related validity of behavior and self-report measures of problem-solving communication skills in distressed and non-distressed parent-adolescent dyads. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 339–352.
Siebelink, B. M., & Treffers, P. D. A. (2001). ADIS-C anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV (Dutch version). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger BV.
Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). Anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM–IV child version, child interview schedule. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Pina, A. A. (2001). Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 937–944. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016. CrossRef
Suveg, C., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 750–759. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_10.
Suveg, C., Zeman, J., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Cassano, M. (2005) Emotion socialization in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 145–155. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-1823-1.
Suveg, C., Morelen, D., Brewer, G. A., Thomassin, K. (2010). The emotion dysregulation model of anxiety: A preliminary path analytic examination. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 924–930. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.018.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (Fifth ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc..
Technology, N. I. (2009). The observer XT 9.0 [computer software]. Noldus Information Technology: Wageningen.
Van der Giessen, D., Hollenstein, T., Hale III, W. W., Koot, H. M., Meeus, W., & Branje, S. (2015). Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 339–353. doi: 10.1007/s10802-014-9910-9. CrossRefPubMed
- Father-Child and Mother-Child Interactions with Children with Anxiety Disorders: Emotional Expressivity and Flexibility of Dyads
Daniëlle Van der Giessen
Susan Maria Bögels
- Springer US