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01-12-2017 | Research | Uitgave 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2017

Etiological factors in hallux valgus, a three-dimensional analysis of the first metatarsal

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2017
Tomohiko Ota, Takeo Nagura, Tetsuro Kokubo, Masateru Kitashiro, Naomichi Ogihara, Kenichiro Takeshima, Hiroyuki Seki, Yasunori Suda, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura



It has been reported that hallux valgus (HV) is associated with axial rotation of the first metatarsal (1MT). However, the association between HV and torsion of the 1MT head with respect to the base has not been previously investigated. The present study examined whether there was a significant difference in 1MT torsion between HV and control groups.


Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scans of 39 ft were obtained, and 3D surface models of the 1MT were generated to quantify the torsion of the head with respect to the base. The HV group consisted of 27 ft from 27 women (69.5 ± 7.5 years old). Only the feet of HV patients with an HV angle >20° on weight-bearing radiography were selected for analysis. The control group consisted of 12 ft from 12 women (67.7 ± 7.2 years old). In a virtual 3D space, two unit vectors, which describe the orientation of the 1MT head and base, were calculated. The angle formed by these two unit vectors representing 1MT torsion was compared between the control and hallux valgus groups.


The mean (± standard deviation) of the torsional angle of the 1MT was 17.6 (± 7.7)° and 4.7 (± 4.0)° in the HV and control groups, respectively, and the difference was significant (p < 0.01).


This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to investigate 1MT torsion in HV patients using CT-based 3D analysis. The 1MT showed significant eversion in hallux valgus patients compared to control group patients.

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