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Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 4/2021

20-11-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER

EEG Neurofeedback During Focused Attention Meditation: Effects on State Mindfulness and Meditation Experiences

Auteurs: Hugh Hunkin, Daniel L. King, Ian T. Zajac

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 4/2021

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Abstract

Objectives

EEG neurofeedback has potential to increase the effectiveness of mobile meditation applications by providing synchronous performance feedback to meditators. This crossover trial aimed to evaluate the effects of auditory EEG neurofeedback on state mindfulness during focused attention meditation—a putative mediator of mental health benefits—relative to no feedback.

Methods

Adult participants (N = 68, Mage = 22.66, SDage = 7.35) completed a task-based measure of state mindfulness while meditating with and without auditory feedback from a consumer-grade EEG headband. Participants rated subjective meditation experiences in each condition. A subgroup (n = 29) completed 14 days of home practice with the device and responded to open-ended questions about their experience.

Results

Auditory feedback was associated with greater state mindfulness (RR = 1.15, 95% CI [1.00, 1.29]). Device-measured mind wandering was lower when feedback was present (d = − 0.22 [− 0.07, − 0.37]), but there was a negligible effect on device-measured recoveries from mind wandering episodes (d = − 0.11 [− 0.30, 0.08]). Feedback was associated with quantitative differences in subjective experiences consistent with heightened arousal. Thematic analysis revealed helpful (active, guiding) and unhelpful (stressful, distracting, incongruent with subjective experience) aspects of feedback.

Conclusions

EEG neurofeedback appears to increase state mindfulness in adults during a brief meditation. These results support feedback as an effective adjunct to meditation. Psychoeducation regarding feedback and the meditative experience may help to maximise the beneficial effects. Replication of these findings in clinical populations is warranted.
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Metagegevens
Titel
EEG Neurofeedback During Focused Attention Meditation: Effects on State Mindfulness and Meditation Experiences
Auteurs
Hugh Hunkin
Daniel L. King
Ian T. Zajac
Publicatiedatum
20-11-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 4/2021
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01541-0