Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander hoofdstuk

2010 | OriginalPaper | Hoofdstuk

14. De oude patiënt

Auteur : Drs. H.H.M. Hegge

Gepubliceerd in: Fysische diagnostiek

Uitgeverij: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum

share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Extract

De oude patiënt verschilt fysiek op meerdere punten van de jonge(re) patiënt. Leeftijd alleen is hierbij niet de voornaamste factor. Er zijn ouderen van 80 jaar die zonder gebruik van medicatie zeer actief door het leven gaan en 70-jarigen, die met veel aandoeningen en pillen aan huis gekluisterd en zorgafhankelijk zijn. Om voor het begrip toch enige aanduiding te geven welke leeftijden het betreft, kan globaal worden aangegeven dat een kwetsbare oudere patiënt (of geriatrische patiënt; zie verderop) zelden jonger dan 70 jaar is. Als er in dit hoofdstuk gesproken wordt over de jongere patiënt, dan wordt daarmee bedoeld een patiënt tot ongeveer 55 jaar. …
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Izaks GJ, Westendorp RGJ. III or just old? Towards a conceptual framework of the relation between ageing and disease.BMC Geriatr. 2003;19;3:7. Izaks GJ, Westendorp RGJ. III or just old? Towards a conceptual framework of the relation between ageing and disease.BMC Geriatr. 2003;19;3:7.
2.
go back to reference Fries J. Aging, natural death and the compression of morbidity. N Engl J Med. 1980;303:130-35. Fries J. Aging, natural death and the compression of morbidity. N Engl J Med. 1980;303:130-35.
3.
go back to reference Katz S, Branch LG, Branson MH, Papsidero JA, Beck JC, Greer DS. Active life expectancy. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:1218-24. Katz S, Branch LG, Branson MH, Papsidero JA, Beck JC, Greer DS. Active life expectancy. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:1218-24.
4.
go back to reference Manton KG, Corder L, Stallard E. Chronic disability trends in elderly United States populations. 1982-94. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:2593-8. Manton KG, Corder L, Stallard E. Chronic disability trends in elderly United States populations. 1982-94. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:2593-8.
5.
go back to reference Manton KG, Stallard E, Corder L. Changes in the age dependence of mortality and disability: Cohort and other determinants. Demography. 1997;34:135-57. Manton KG, Stallard E, Corder L. Changes in the age dependence of mortality and disability: Cohort and other determinants. Demography. 1997;34:135-57.
6.
go back to reference Freedman VA, Martin LG, Schoeni RF. Recent trends in disability and functioning among older adults in the United States: A systematic review. JAMA. 2002;288:3137–46 Freedman VA, Martin LG, Schoeni RF. Recent trends in disability and functioning among older adults in the United States: A systematic review. JAMA. 2002;288:3137–46
7.
go back to reference Poos MJJC, Gijsen R. Prevalentie, incidentie en sterfte naar leeftijd en geslacht. In: Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Bilthoven: RIVM, http://​www.​nationaalkompas.​nl Gezondheid en ziekte\ Ziekten en aandoeningen\ Bewegingsstelsel en bindweefsel\ Artrose, 16 mei 2003. Poos MJJC, Gijsen R. Prevalentie, incidentie en sterfte naar leeftijd en geslacht. In: Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Bilthoven: RIVM, http://​www.​nationaalkompas.​nl Gezondheid en ziekte\ Ziekten en aandoeningen\ Bewegingsstelsel en bindweefsel\ Artrose, 16 mei 2003.
8.
go back to reference Beckett NS, Peters R, Fletcher AE, Staessen JA, Liu L, Dumitrascu D, et al; HYVET Study Group. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 1;358(18):1887-98. Epub 2008 Mar 31. Beckett NS, Peters R, Fletcher AE, Staessen JA, Liu L, Dumitrascu D, et al; HYVET Study Group. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 1;358(18):1887-98. Epub 2008 Mar 31.
9.
go back to reference Chen Y, Getchell TV, Sparks DL, Getchell ML. Patterns of adrenergic and peptidergic innervation in human olfactory mucosa: age-related trends. J Comp Neurol. 1993;334(1):104-16. Chen Y, Getchell TV, Sparks DL, Getchell ML. Patterns of adrenergic and peptidergic innervation in human olfactory mucosa: age-related trends. J Comp Neurol. 1993;334(1):104-16.
10.
go back to reference Cain, WS, Gent, JF, Goodspeed, RB, Leonard, G. A clinical evaluation of olfaction. Am J Otolaryngology. 1988;4:252. Cain, WS, Gent, JF, Goodspeed, RB, Leonard, G. A clinical evaluation of olfaction. Am J Otolaryngology. 1988;4:252.
11.
go back to reference Weiffenbach JM, Baum BJ, Burghauser R. Taste thresholds: Quality specific variation with human aging. J Gerontol. 1982;37:372. Weiffenbach JM, Baum BJ, Burghauser R. Taste thresholds: Quality specific variation with human aging. J Gerontol. 1982;37:372.
12.
go back to reference Stevens JC, Cain WS. Changes in taste and flavor in aging. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1993;33:27. Stevens JC, Cain WS. Changes in taste and flavor in aging. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1993;33:27.
13.
go back to reference Mistretta CM. Aging effects on anatomy and neurophysiology of taste and smell. Gerodontology. 1984;3:131. Mistretta CM. Aging effects on anatomy and neurophysiology of taste and smell. Gerodontology. 1984;3:131.
14.
go back to reference Kane RL. Essentials of clinical geriatrics. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994. Kane RL. Essentials of clinical geriatrics. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994.
15.
go back to reference Marenberg M. Normal physical aging encyclopedia of health and aging. Newbury Park: Sage publications; 2007. Marenberg M. Normal physical aging encyclopedia of health and aging. Newbury Park: Sage publications; 2007.
16.
go back to reference Odenheimer G, Funkenstein HH, Beckett L, Chown M, Pilgrim D, Evans D, et al. Comparison of neurologic changes in ‘successfully ageing’ persons vs the total aging population. Arch Neurol. 1994;51:573-80. Odenheimer G, Funkenstein HH, Beckett L, Chown M, Pilgrim D, Evans D, et al. Comparison of neurologic changes in ‘successfully ageing’ persons vs the total aging population. Arch Neurol. 1994;51:573-80.
17.
go back to reference Cassel CK, Leipzig RM, Cohen HJ, Larson EB, Meier DE (Eds.). Geriatric medicine. An evidence based approach. 4th ed. New York: Springer; 2006. Cassel CK, Leipzig RM, Cohen HJ, Larson EB, Meier DE (Eds.). Geriatric medicine. An evidence based approach. 4th ed. New York: Springer; 2006.
18.
go back to reference Inzitari M, Pozzi C, Ferrucci L, Chiarantini D, Rinaldi LA, Baccini M, et al; Subtle neurological abnormalities as risk factors for cognitive and functional decline, cerebrovascular events, and mortality in older community-dwelling adults. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(12):1270-6. Inzitari M, Pozzi C, Ferrucci L, Chiarantini D, Rinaldi LA, Baccini M, et al; Subtle neurological abnormalities as risk factors for cognitive and functional decline, cerebrovascular events, and mortality in older community-dwelling adults. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(12):1270-6.
19.
go back to reference Stuck A. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Lancet. 1993;342:1032-36. Stuck A. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Lancet. 1993;342:1032-36.
20.
go back to reference Levkoff SE, Cleary PD, Wetle T, Besdine RW. Illness behavior in the aged. Implications for clinicians. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988;36(7):622-9. Review. Levkoff SE, Cleary PD, Wetle T, Besdine RW. Illness behavior in the aged. Implications for clinicians. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988;36(7):622-9. Review.
21.
go back to reference Leventhal EA, Prohaska TR. Age, symptom interpretation, and health behavior. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986;34(3):185-91. Leventhal EA, Prohaska TR. Age, symptom interpretation, and health behavior. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986;34(3):185-91.
22.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Text revision. Copyright 2000 American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Text revision. Copyright 2000 American Psychiatric Association.
23.
go back to reference Inouye SK, Dyck CH van, Alessi CA, et al. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(12):941-8. Inouye SK, Dyck CH van, Alessi CA, et al. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(12):941-8.
24.
go back to reference Smitz S, Giagoultsis T, Dewé W, Albert A. Comparison of rectal and infrared ear temperatures in older hospital inpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(1):63-6. Smitz S, Giagoultsis T, Dewé W, Albert A. Comparison of rectal and infrared ear temperatures in older hospital inpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(1):63-6.
25.
go back to reference Stavem. Accuracy of infrared ear thermometry in adult patients. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23:100-5. Stavem. Accuracy of infrared ear thermometry in adult patients. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23:100-5.
26.
go back to reference The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. Neurology. 1996;46:1470. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. Neurology. 1996;46:1470.
27.
go back to reference Vita AJ, Terry RB, Hubert HB, Fries JF. Aging, health risks, and cumulative disability. New Engl J Med 1998;338:1035. Vita AJ, Terry RB, Hubert HB, Fries JF. Aging, health risks, and cumulative disability. New Engl J Med 1998;338:1035.
28.
go back to reference Alibhai SM, Greenwood C, Payette H. An approach to the management of unintentional weight loss in elderly people. CMAJ. 2005;172(6):773-80. Alibhai SM, Greenwood C, Payette H. An approach to the management of unintentional weight loss in elderly people. CMAJ. 2005;172(6):773-80.
29.
go back to reference Thompson MP, Morris LK. Unexplained weight loss in the ambulatory elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39(5):497-500. Thompson MP, Morris LK. Unexplained weight loss in the ambulatory elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39(5):497-500.
30.
go back to reference Young J, Inouye SK. Delirium in older people. BMJ. 2007;334(7598):842-6. Young J, Inouye SK. Delirium in older people. BMJ. 2007;334(7598):842-6.
31.
go back to reference Inouye SK. Delirium in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(11):1157-65. Inouye SK. Delirium in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(11):1157-65.
32.
go back to reference Freedman VA, Martin LG. Contribution of chronic conditions to aggregate changes in oldage functioning. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1755-60. Freedman VA, Martin LG. Contribution of chronic conditions to aggregate changes in oldage functioning. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1755-60.
33.
go back to reference Ganz DA, Bao Y, Shekelle PG, Rubenstein LZ. Will my patient fall? The rational clinical examination. JAMA 2007;29:777-86. Ganz DA, Bao Y, Shekelle PG, Rubenstein LZ. Will my patient fall? The rational clinical examination. JAMA 2007;29:777-86.
34.
go back to reference Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Oden A, Melton LJ 3rd, Khaltaev N. A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis.Bone, Mar 2008; 42: 467-75. Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Oden A, Melton LJ 3rd, Khaltaev N. A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis.Bone, Mar 2008; 42: 467-75.
35.
go back to reference Ismail AA, Cooper C, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, Kanis JA, Silman AJ, et al. Number and type of vertebral deformities: epidemiological characteristics and relation to back pain and height loss. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9:206-13. Ismail AA, Cooper C, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, Kanis JA, Silman AJ, et al. Number and type of vertebral deformities: epidemiological characteristics and relation to back pain and height loss. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9:206-13.
36.
go back to reference Mallet ML. Pathophysiology of accidental hypothermia. QJM, 2002;95:775-85. Mallet ML. Pathophysiology of accidental hypothermia. QJM, 2002;95:775-85.
37.
go back to reference Conte HA, Chen YT, Mehal W, Scinto JD, Quagliarello VJ. A prognostic rule for elderly patients admitted with community acquired pneumonia. Am J Med 1999;106:20-8. Conte HA, Chen YT, Mehal W, Scinto JD, Quagliarello VJ. A prognostic rule for elderly patients admitted with community acquired pneumonia. Am J Med 1999;106:20-8.
38.
go back to reference Olde Rikkert MGM, Hoefnagels WHL. Dehydratie bij geriatrische patiënten; pathofysiologie, diagnostiek, therapie en preventie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1993;137:750-3. Olde Rikkert MGM, Hoefnagels WHL. Dehydratie bij geriatrische patiënten; pathofysiologie, diagnostiek, therapie en preventie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1993;137:750-3.
39.
go back to reference Chung HM, Kluge R, Schrier RW, Anderson RJ. Clinical assessment of extracellular fluid volume in hyponatremia. Am J Med. 1987;83:905-8. Chung HM, Kluge R, Schrier RW, Anderson RJ. Clinical assessment of extracellular fluid volume in hyponatremia. Am J Med. 1987;83:905-8.
40.
go back to reference Witting MD, Wears RL, Li S. Defining the positive tilt test: a study of healthy adults with moderate acute blood loss. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23:1320-3. Witting MD, Wears RL, Li S. Defining the positive tilt test: a study of healthy adults with moderate acute blood loss. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23:1320-3.
41.
go back to reference Gross CR, Lindquist RD, Wooley AC, Granieri R, Allard K, Webster B. Clinical indicators of dehydration severity in elderly patients. J Emerg Med. 1992;10:267-74. Gross CR, Lindquist RD, Wooley AC, Granieri R, Allard K, Webster B. Clinical indicators of dehydration severity in elderly patients. J Emerg Med. 1992;10:267-74.
42.
go back to reference McGee S, Abernethy WB, Simel DL. Is this patient hypovolemic? JAMA. 1999;281:1022-9. McGee S, Abernethy WB, Simel DL. Is this patient hypovolemic? JAMA. 1999;281:1022-9.
43.
go back to reference Eaton D, Bannister P, Mulley GP, Connolly MJ. Axillary sweating in clinical assessment of dehydration in ill elderly patients. BMJ. 1994;308:1271. Eaton D, Bannister P, Mulley GP, Connolly MJ. Axillary sweating in clinical assessment of dehydration in ill elderly patients. BMJ. 1994;308:1271.
44.
go back to reference Hendrikse F, La Heij EC. Hoe vaak komen gezichtsstoornissen voor? In: Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Bilthoven: RIVM, < http://​www.​nationaalkompas.​nl > Gezondheid en ziekte\ Ziekten en aandoeningen\ Zenuwstelsel en zintuigen\ Gezichtsstoornissen, 11 december 2006. Hendrikse F, La Heij EC. Hoe vaak komen gezichtsstoornissen voor? In: Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Bilthoven: RIVM, < http://​www.​nationaalkompas.​nl > Gezondheid en ziekte\ Ziekten en aandoeningen\ Zenuwstelsel en zintuigen\ Gezichtsstoornissen, 11 december 2006.
45.
go back to reference Pinto E. Blood pressure and ageing. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83(976):109-14. Review. Pinto E. Blood pressure and ageing. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83(976):109-14. Review.
46.
go back to reference Laurell H, Hanssons LE, Gunnarsson U. Acute abdominal pain among elderly patients. Gerontology. 2006;52:339-44. Laurell H, Hanssons LE, Gunnarsson U. Acute abdominal pain among elderly patients. Gerontology. 2006;52:339-44.
47.
go back to reference Bemelman WA, Kievit J. Fysische diagnostiek - loslaatpijn. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999;143(6) 300-3. Bemelman WA, Kievit J. Fysische diagnostiek - loslaatpijn. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999;143(6) 300-3.
48.
go back to reference Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, Ewing LL. The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol. 1984;132:474. Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, Ewing LL. The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol. 1984;132:474.
49.
go back to reference Altman RD. Classification of disease: osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1991;20(6)Suppl 2:40-7. Altman RD. Classification of disease: osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1991;20(6)Suppl 2:40-7.
50.
go back to reference Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, Bole G, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. Development of the criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis, classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 1986;29:1039-49. Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, Bole G, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. Development of the criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis, classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 1986;29:1039-49.
51.
go back to reference Wu CW, Morrell MR, Heinze E, Concoff AL, Wollaston SJ, Arnold EL, et al. Validation of American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for knee osteoarthritis using arthroscopically defined cartilage damage scores. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005;35(3):197-201. Wu CW, Morrell MR, Heinze E, Concoff AL, Wollaston SJ, Arnold EL, et al. Validation of American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for knee osteoarthritis using arthroscopically defined cartilage damage scores. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005;35(3):197-201.
52.
go back to reference Richards M, Stern Y, Mayeux R. Subtle extrapyramidal signs can predict the development of dementia in elderly individuals. Neurology. 1993;43:2184-8. Richards M, Stern Y, Mayeux R. Subtle extrapyramidal signs can predict the development of dementia in elderly individuals. Neurology. 1993;43:2184-8.
53.
go back to reference Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Parkinsonianlike signs and risk of incident Alzheimer's disease in older persons. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:539-44. Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Parkinsonianlike signs and risk of incident Alzheimer's disease in older persons. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:539-44.
54.
go back to reference Bennett DA, Beckett LA, Murray AM, Shannon KM, Goetz CG, Pilgrim DM, et al. Prevalence of parkinsonian signs and associated mortality in a community population of older people. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:71-6. Bennett DA, Beckett LA, Murray AM, Shannon KM, Goetz CG, Pilgrim DM, et al. Prevalence of parkinsonian signs and associated mortality in a community population of older people. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:71-6.
55.
go back to reference Louis ED, Luchsinger JA, Tang M-X, Mayeux R. Parkinsonian signs in older people: prevalence and associations with smoking and coffee consumption. Neurology. 2003;61:24-8. Louis ED, Luchsinger JA, Tang M-X, Mayeux R. Parkinsonian signs in older people: prevalence and associations with smoking and coffee consumption. Neurology. 2003;61:24-8.
56.
go back to reference Poos MJJC (RIVM). Prevalentie, incidentie en sterfte naar leeftijd en geslacht. In: Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Bilthoven: RIVM, < http://​www.​nationaalkompas.​nl > Gezondheid en ziekte\ Ziekten en aandoeningen\ Psychische stoornissen\ Dementie, 25 september 2007. Poos MJJC (RIVM). Prevalentie, incidentie en sterfte naar leeftijd en geslacht. In: Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Bilthoven: RIVM, < http://​www.​nationaalkompas.​nl > Gezondheid en ziekte\ Ziekten en aandoeningen\ Psychische stoornissen\ Dementie, 25 september 2007.
57.
go back to reference Puxty JAH, Fox RA, Horan MA. The frequency of physical signs usually attributed to meningeal irritation in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1983;31:590-2. Puxty JAH, Fox RA, Horan MA. The frequency of physical signs usually attributed to meningeal irritation in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1983;31:590-2.
58.
go back to reference Mold JW, Vesely SK, Keyl BA, Schenk JB, Roberts M. The prevalence, predictors, and consequences of peripheral sensory neuropathy in older patients. J Am Board Fam Med 2004;17:309-18. Mold JW, Vesely SK, Keyl BA, Schenk JB, Roberts M. The prevalence, predictors, and consequences of peripheral sensory neuropathy in older patients. J Am Board Fam Med 2004;17:309-18.
59.
go back to reference Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of illness in the aged. The Index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA. 1963;185(12):914-9. Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of illness in the aged. The Index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA. 1963;185(12):914-9.
60.
go back to reference Katz S, Downs TD, Cash HR, Grotz RC. Progress in development of the index of ADL. Gerontologist. 1970;10(1):20-30. Katz S, Downs TD, Cash HR, Grotz RC. Progress in development of the index of ADL. Gerontologist. 1970;10(1):20-30.
61.
go back to reference Weinberger M, Samsa GP, Schmader K, Greenberg SM, Carr DB, Wildman DS. Comparing proxy and patients' perceptions of patients' functional status: results from an outpatient geriatric clinic. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(6):585-8. Weinberger M, Samsa GP, Schmader K, Greenberg SM, Carr DB, Wildman DS. Comparing proxy and patients' perceptions of patients' functional status: results from an outpatient geriatric clinic. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(6):585-8.
62.
go back to reference Haan R de, Limburg M, Schuling J, Broeshart J, Jonkers L, Zuylen P. van. Klinimetrische evaluatie van de Barthel-index, een maat voor beperkingen in het dagelijks functioneren. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd;1993; 37 (18), 917-21. Haan R de, Limburg M, Schuling J, Broeshart J, Jonkers L, Zuylen P. van. Klinimetrische evaluatie van de Barthel-index, een maat voor beperkingen in het dagelijks functioneren. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd;1993; 37 (18), 917-21.
63.
go back to reference Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional evaluation: The Barthel Index. Md State Med J. 1965;14:61-5. Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional evaluation: The Barthel Index. Md State Med J. 1965;14:61-5.
64.
go back to reference Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. ‘Mini-mental State’: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatric Res. 1975;12(3):189-98. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. ‘Mini-mental State’: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatric Res. 1975;12(3):189-98.
65.
go back to reference Kok RM, Verhey FRJ, Schmand B. Meetinstrumenten bij cognitieve stoornissen. Tijdschr Psychiatrie. 2004;46(10):665-9. Kok RM, Verhey FRJ, Schmand B. Meetinstrumenten bij cognitieve stoornissen. Tijdschr Psychiatrie. 2004;46(10):665-9.
66.
go back to reference Tombaugh TN, Mc Intyre NJ. The mini-mental state examination: a comprehensive review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:922-35. Tombaugh TN, Mc Intyre NJ. The mini-mental state examination: a comprehensive review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:922-35.
67.
go back to reference Mathias S, Nayak USL, Isaacs B. Balance in elderly patients: the ‘Get-up and Go’ test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986;67:387-9. Mathias S, Nayak USL, Isaacs B. Balance in elderly patients: the ‘Get-up and Go’ test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986;67:387-9.
68.
go back to reference Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed ‘Up & Go’: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:142-8. Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed ‘Up & Go’: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:142-8.
69.
go back to reference Ellis G, Langhorne P. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older hospital patients. Br Med Bull. 2005;71:45-59. Ellis G, Langhorne P. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older hospital patients. Br Med Bull. 2005;71:45-59.
70.
go back to reference Ellis G, Whitehead M, Robinson D, O’Neill D, Langhorne P. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital: a systematic review. (Protocol) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006211. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006211 Ellis G, Whitehead M, Robinson D, O’Neill D, Langhorne P. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital: a systematic review. (Protocol) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006211. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006211
71.
go back to reference Wei LA, Fearing MA, Sternberg EJ, Inouye SK. The Confusion Assessment Method: a systematic review of current usage. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(5):823-30. Epub 2008 Apr 1. Review. Wei LA, Fearing MA, Sternberg EJ, Inouye SK. The Confusion Assessment Method: a systematic review of current usage. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(5):823-30. Epub 2008 Apr 1. Review.
72.
go back to reference Danzl DF, Pozos RS, Auerbach PS, Glazer S, Goetz W, Johnson E, et al. Multicenter hypothermia survey. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16:1042-55. Danzl DF, Pozos RS, Auerbach PS, Glazer S, Goetz W, Johnson E, et al. Multicenter hypothermia survey. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16:1042-55.
73.
go back to reference Bota DP, Lopes Ferreira F, Melot C, Vincent JL. Body temperature in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:811-6. Bota DP, Lopes Ferreira F, Melot C, Vincent JL. Body temperature in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:811-6.
74.
go back to reference Chassagne P, Perol MB, Doucet J, Trivalle C, Ménard JF, Manchon ND, et al. Is presentation of bacteriemia in the elderly the same as in younger patients? Am J Med. 1996;100:65-70. Chassagne P, Perol MB, Doucet J, Trivalle C, Ménard JF, Manchon ND, et al. Is presentation of bacteriemia in the elderly the same as in younger patients? Am J Med. 1996;100:65-70.
75.
go back to reference Vivanti A, Harvey K, Ash S, Battistutta D. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older people admitted to hospital: what are the strongest indicators? Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008;47(3):340-55. Vivanti A, Harvey K, Ash S, Battistutta D. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older people admitted to hospital: what are the strongest indicators? Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008;47(3):340-55.
76.
go back to reference McGee S. Evidence-based physical diagnosis. 2nd ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2007. McGee S. Evidence-based physical diagnosis. 2nd ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2007.
77.
go back to reference Richtlijn Diagnostiek en medicamenteuze behandeling van dementie. CBO-NVKG-richtlijn 2005. Alphen a/d Rijn: Van Zuiden publicaties; 2005. Richtlijn Diagnostiek en medicamenteuze behandeling van dementie. CBO-NVKG-richtlijn 2005. Alphen a/d Rijn: Van Zuiden publicaties; 2005.
78.
go back to reference Steffen TM, Hacker TA, Mollinger L. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling elderly people: six-minute walk test, berg balance scale, timed up & go test, and gait speeds. Phys Ther. 2002;82(2):128-37. Steffen TM, Hacker TA, Mollinger L. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling elderly people: six-minute walk test, berg balance scale, timed up & go test, and gait speeds. Phys Ther. 2002;82(2):128-37.
79.
go back to reference Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Phys Ther. 2000;80:896-903. Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Phys Ther. 2000;80:896-903.
Metagegevens
Titel
De oude patiënt
Auteur
Drs. H.H.M. Hegge
Copyright
2010
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-313-8497-6_14