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02-12-2016 | Artikel

Zit middelengebruik en verslavingsgedrag in de familie?

Over erfelijkheid en de zoektocht naar genen

Auteur: Prof. dr. Jacqueline M. Vink

Gepubliceerd in: Verslaving | Uitgave 4/2016

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Samenvatting

Familieleden lijken op elkaar wat betreft middelengebruik en verslavingsgedrag. Komt dit doordat ze dezelfde gezinsomgeving met elkaar delen of komt het doordat er genetische overlap is tussen familieleden? Tweelingonderzoek laat zien dat bij beginnen met een middel de gezinsomgeving een grote rol speelt, alhoewel erfelijke aanleg ook een bijdrage levert. Bij overmatig gebruik en misbruik van en verslaving aan middelen als nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, cafeïne en suiker zien we dat de gezinsomgeving geen rol meer speelt, maar dat verschillen tussen mensen worden bepaald door erfelijke aanleg en door unieke omgevingsfactoren. In het afgelopen decennium heeft de zoektocht naar genen voor middelengebruik een grote stap voorwaarts gemaakt, dankzij de genoomwijde associatiestudies. Zo zijn er significante associaties gevonden tussen het aantal sigaretten dat iemand per dag rookt en de genen CHRNA3 (subunit A3 van nicotine-acetylcholinereceptor) en CYP2A6 (betrokken bij metabolisme van nicotine). De nicotine-acethylcholinereceptoren bevinden zich in het brein en spelen een rol bij het beloningssysteem. Kleine variaties in deze genen kunnen ervoor zorgen dat de ene persoon meer beloning ervaart na het roken van een sigaret dan een andere persoon. Varianten in het CYP2A6-gen kunnen ervoor zorgen dat de ene persoon nicotine sneller afbreekt dan de andere persoon en dat de ene persoon daardoor sneller een nieuwe sigaret wil dan de andere. Verder zien we overlap tussen de genetische factoren voor roken, alcohol, cannabis, cafeïne en suiker. Dit suggereert een algemene verslavingsgevoeligheid, in plaats van een genetische gevoeligheid voor een enkel middel. Ook zijn er voorbeelden waarbij mensen met het ene genotype meer baat hebben bij behandeling, dan mensen met een ander genotype. Mogelijk kan genetische informatie in de toekomst een rol spelen bij het geven van ‘behandeling op maat’ bij verslavingsgedrag.
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Metagegevens
Titel
Zit middelengebruik en verslavingsgedrag in de familie?
Over erfelijkheid en de zoektocht naar genen
Auteur
Prof. dr. Jacqueline M. Vink
Publicatiedatum
02-12-2016
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Verslaving / Uitgave 4/2016
Print ISSN: 1574-1842
Elektronisch ISSN: 1875-7073
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12501-016-0089-3

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