Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Arum, R., & Shavit, Y. (1995). Secondary vocational education and the transition from school to work. Sociology of Education, 68(3), 187–204. CrossRef
Babinski, D. E., Pelham, W. E., Jr., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., Waschbusch, D. A., Yu, J., MacLean, M., Wymbs, B., Sibley, M. H., Biswas, A., Robb, J., & Karch, K. (2011). Late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood: an exploratory investigation. Journal of Attention Disorders, 14(3), 204–214. CrossRef
Barbaresi, W. J., Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Weaver, A. L., & Jacobsen, S. J. (2007). Long-term school outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a population-based perspective. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 28(4), 265–273. CrossRef
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(4), 546–557. CrossRef
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. E. (2006). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(2), 192–202. CrossRef
Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford.
Biederman, J., & Faraone, S. V. (2006). The effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on employment and household income. Medscape General Medicine, 8(3), 12. PubMed
Biederman, J., Petty, C. R., Fried, R., Kaiser, R., Dolan, C. R., Schoenfeld, S., et al. (2008). Educational and occupational underattainment in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder: a controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(8).
Cuffe, S., Waller, J., Cuccaro, M., Pumariega, A., & Garrison, C. Z. (1995). Race and gender differences in the treatment of psychiatric disorders in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(11), 1536–1543. CrossRef
DuPaul, G. (2007). School-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: current status and future directions. School Psychology Review, 36(2), 183–194.
Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Morris, R. D., & Lyon, R. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of learning disabilities in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 506–522.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Hossler, D., & Stage, F. K. (1992). Family and high school experience influences on the postsecondary educational plans of ninth-grade students. American Educational Research Journal, 29(2), 425–451.
Jessor, R., Donovan, J. E., & Costa, F. M. (1991). Beyond adolescence: Problem behavior and young adult development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Langberg, J. M., Molina, B. S. G., Arnold, L. E., Epstein, J. N., Altaye, M., Hinshaw, S. P., et al. (2011). Patterns and predictors of adolescent academic achievement and performance in a sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(4), 519–531. PubMed
Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Bessler, A., Malloy, P., & Hynes, M. E. (1997). Educational and occupational outcome of hyperactive boys grown up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(9), 1222–1227. CrossRef
Molina, B., Hinshaw, S., Swanson, J., Arnold, L., Vitiello, B., Jensen, P., & MTA Cooperative Group. (2009). The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(5), 484–500. CrossRef
Mortimer, J. T., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Holmes, M., & Shanahan, M. J. (2002). The process of occupational decision making: patterns during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 439–465. CrossRef
Myers, R. (1990). Classical and modern regression with applications (2nd ed.). Boston: Duxbury.
Pelham, W. E., Evans, S. W., Gnagy, E. M., & Greenslade, K. E. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, factor analyses, and conditional probabilities in a special education sample. School Psychology Review, 21, 285–299.
Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., Meichenbaum, D. L., & Lopez-Williams, A. (2005). Stimulant treatment and outcomes in the Pittsburgh ADHD longitudinal study. Poster presented at the 12th Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, New York.
Robb, J. A., Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Foster, M. E., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., et al. (2011). The estimated annual cost of ADHD to the US education system. School Mental Health, 3(3), 169–177. CrossRef
Schulenberg, J. E., Sameroff, A. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The transition to adulthood as a critical juncture in the course of psychopathology and mental health. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 799–806. PubMed
Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., Waxmonsky, J.G., Waschbusch, D. A., et al. (2012). When diagnosing ADHD in young adults emphasize informant reports, DSM items, and impairment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Tanner, J., Davies, S., & O’Grady, B. (1999). Whatever happened to yesterday’s rebels? Longitudinal effects of youth delinquency on education and employment. Social Problems, 46(2), 250–274. CrossRef
Tarter, R. (1997). CEDAR follow-up protocol. University of Pittsburgh.
Test, D. W., Mazzotti, V. L., Mustian, A. L., Fowler, C. H., Kortering, L., & Kohler, P. (2009). Evidence-based secondary transition predictors for improving postschool outcomes for students with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32, 160–181. CrossRef
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Digest of Education Statistics, 2008 (NCES 2009-020), Table 226.
Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). Wide range achievement test–revision 3. Wilmington: Jastak Associates.
- Young Adult Educational and Vocational Outcomes of Children Diagnosed with ADHD
Aparajita B. Kuriyan
William E. Pelham Jr.
Brooke S. G. Molina
Daniel A. Waschbusch
Elizabeth M. Gnagy
Margaret H. Sibley
Dara E. Babinski
Kristine M. Kent
- Springer US